Dressen-Changes of State

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Chapter 12:

Chapter 12 States of Matter Liquids and Solids Changes of State

Objectives:

Objectives Liquid How the atoms are arranged Basic properties Solids How the atoms are arranged Basic properties Changes of State What does equilibrium mean? Le Chatelier’s Principle (We will talk more in another unit) The six basic phase changes Be able to describe the parts of a heating and cooling curve Understand a phase diagram

The Four States of Matter:

The Four States of Matter Plasma Solid Liquid Gas

What determines which state of matter you are in?:

What determines which state of matter you are in? Particle arrangement E nergy of the particles D istance between particles

STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS:

STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position. Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume.

STATES OF MATTER LIQUID:

STATES OF MATTER LIQUID Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another. Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume.

STATES OF MATTER GAS:

STATES OF MATTER GAS Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely. Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

Compression of Gases, Liquids and Solids:

Compression of Gases, Liquids and Solids Gases are compressible fluids. Their molecules are widely separated. Liquids are relatively incompressible fluids. Their molecules are more tightly packed. Solids are nearly incompressible and rigid. Their molecules or ions are in close contact and do not move.

Properties of Liquids:

Properties of Liquids Relative High Density Relative Incompressibility Ability to diffuse Surface Tension Viscosity Capillary Action Vaporization (Evaporation and Boiling) Freezing

Properties of Solids:

Properties of Solids High Density High Incompressibility Definite Melting Point Low Rate Of Diffusion Amorphous versus Crystalline

Equilibrium:

Equilibrium A condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system

PHASE CHANGES:

PHASE CHANGES Description of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change Solid to liquid Melting Heat goes into the solid as it melts. Liquid to solid Freezing Heat leaves the liquid as it freezes.

PHASE CHANGES:

PHASE CHANGES Description of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change Liquid to gas Vaporization, which includes boiling and evaporation Heat goes into the liquid as it vaporizes. Gas to liquid Condensation Heat leaves the gas as it condenses. Solid to gas Gas to solid Sublimation Deposition Heat goes into the solid as it sublimates. Heat leaves the gas as it condenses.

But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels… between 1000°C and 1,000,000,000°C ?:

But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels… between 1000 °C and 1,000,000,000°C ? Will everything just be a gas?

STATES OF MATTER PLASMA:

STATES OF MATTER PLASMA A plasma is an ionized gas. A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. Plasmas, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. Plasma is the common state of matter

STATES OF MATTER:

STATES OF MATTER SOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMA Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but do not move from place to place Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrate and move freely at high speeds Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles

The Six Basic Phase Changes:

The Six Basic Phase Changes

Phase Changes: Where Does the Heat Go?:

Phase Changes: Where Does the Heat Go?

Heating/Cooling Curve:

Heating/Cooling Curve

Heating/Cooling Curve:

Heating/Cooling Curve

Heating/Cooling Curve:

Heating/Cooling Curve

Phase Diagrams:

Phase Diagrams Graph of pressure-temperature relationship: Show were each of the phases are Lines indicate equilibrium state two phases. Triple point - Temp. and Pressure where all three phases co-exist in equilibrium. Critical temp.- Temp. where substance must always be gas, no matter what pressure. Critical pressure- vapor pressure at critical temp. Critical point- point where system is at its critical pressure and temp.

Phase Diagram of H2O:

Phase Diagram of H 2 O Water Vapor <---Condensation Vaporization - --> Water Ice <---Melting Freezing---> Triple Point <---Deposition Sublimation--->

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