23 WeinbergGP Pt7Ch23

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CHAPTER 23 Aggression in Sport

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Session Outline What Is Aggression? Causes of Aggression Aggression in Sport: Special Considerations Implications for Practice

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Aggression “Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment” (Baron & Richardson, 1994) What Is Aggression?

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Aggression is a behavior. Criteria for Aggression Aggression involves harm or injury. Aggression is directed toward a living organism. Aggression involves intent.

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Types of Aggression The primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm on another. Hostile or reactive aggression Instrumental aggression This is aggression occurring in the quest of some nonaggressive goal.

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Instinct Theory Individuals have an innate instinct to be aggressive, which builds up until it must be expressed (directly or via catharsis). [no support] Causes of Aggression

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Frustration-Aggression Theory Frustration always causes aggression. [no support] Causes of Aggression

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Social Learning Theory Aggression is learned through observing others (modeling) and then having similar behavior reinforced.[no support] Causes of Aggression

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Revised Frustration-Aggression Theory Combines elements of the frustration-aggression theory with the social learning theory[support] Causes of Aggression

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Causes of Aggression Revised Frustration-Aggression Theory

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Spectator aggression is associated with Aggression in Sport Special considerations small-scale, on-the-field aggressive acts; aroused conditions; alcohol use; younger, disadvantaged male spectators; and (in some cases) fan enjoyment.

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Game reasoning and aggression Aggression in Sport Special considerations Many athletes view aggression as inappropriate in general but appropriate in the sport environment. This is called “bracketed morality.”

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Athletic performance and aggression Aggression in Sport Special considerations No clear pattern has been found, but professionals must decide if they value enhanced performance at the cost of increased aggression.

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Team moral atmosphere and aggression Aggression in Sport Special considerations Aggression in young athletes has been predicted by perceptions of teammates’ aggressive behavior in the same situation and the young athletes’ willingness to injure others at their coach’s request. Team norms also contribute to the moral atmosphere that influences aggression in athletes.

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Sport-specific aggression determinants include athletes behaving aggressively because Aggression in Sport Special considerations someone has committed aggression against them, they are highly ego oriented and have a low level of moral development, they want to show how tough they are, they see it as part of their role, and they feel group pressures to be aggressive.

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Recognize when aggression is most likely to occur—when individuals are frustrated and aroused, often because they Implications for Practice are losing, perceive unfair officiating, are embarrassed, are physically in pain, or are playing below capabilities.

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Implications for Practice Control aggression via stress or emotion management training. Keep winning in perspective. Distinguish between aggression and assertive or intense play. Teach nonviolent conflict resolution skills. Teach appropriate behavior. (continued)

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1. Develop strict alcohol control policies. 2. Immediately penalize spectators for aggressive acts. 3. Hire officials who don’t tolerate aggression. 4. Inform coaches that aggression won’t be tolerated. 5. Work with media not to glorify aggressive acts. Control spectator aggression. Implications for Practice

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Management should make fundamental penalty revisions so that rule-violating behavior results in punishments that have greater punitive value than potential reinforcement. Recommendation 1 ISSP Position Stand on Aggressionand Violence in Sport Management must ensure proper coaching of teams, particularly at junior levels, that emphasizes a fair-play code of conduct among participants. Recommendation 2 (continued)

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Management should ban the use of alcoholic beverages at sporting events. Recommendation 3 ISSP Position Stand on Aggressionand Violence in Sport Management must make sure facilities are adequate regarding catering and spacing needs and the provision of modern amenities. Recommendation 4 (continued)

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The media must place in proper perspective the isolated incidents of aggression that occur in sport, rather than making them “highlights.” Recommendation 5 ISSP Position Stand on Aggressionand Violence in Sport The media should promote a campaign to decrease violence and hostile aggression in sport, which should also involve the participa-tion and commitment of athletes, coaches, management, officials, and spectators. Recommendation 6 (continued)

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Coaches, managers, athletes, media, officials, and authority figures (i.e., police) should take part in workshops on aggression and violence to ensure they understand the topic of aggres-sion, why it occurs, the cost of aggressive acts, and ways in which aggressive behavior can be controlled. Recommendation 7 ISSP Position Stand on Aggressionand Violence in Sport (continued)

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Coaches, managers, officials, and the media should encourage athletes to engage in prosocial behavior and should punish those who perform acts of hostility. Recommendation 8 ISSP Position Stand on Aggressionand Violence in Sport (continued)

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Athletes should take part in programs aimed at helping them reduce behavioral tendencies toward aggression. The tightening of rules, imposing of harsher penalties, and changing of reinforcement patterns are only parts of the answer to inhibiting aggression in sport. Ultimately, the athlete must assume responsibility. Recommendation 9 ISSP Position Stand on Aggressionand Violence in Sport

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