postmodernism

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WELCOME TO POST MODERNISM & THE WORKS OF MICHEAL GRAVES : 

WELCOME TO POST MODERNISM & THE WORKS OF MICHEAL GRAVES BY: DIANA ANWAYA

Slide 2: 

“ Where everything is possible and almost nothing is certain.” -Vaclav Havel, president of the Czech Republic of 1994 “ A worldview characterized by the belief that truth doesn’t exist in any objective sense but is created rather than discovered.” - Josh McDowell & Bob Hostetler

Postmodernism Vs. Modernism : 

Postmodernism Vs. Modernism Postmodern architecture-was an international style that was first cited in the 1950s, but did not become a movement until the late 1970s. It began as a response to the perceived blandness of the Modern Movement, which focused primarily on: perfection harmony of form and function dismissal of unnecessary ornaments not looking to any past historical references or methods of construction Modernism did not account for the desire of beauty! They focused on functionalism and economical building This meant that ornaments were stripped away, and as a result buildings came to have a stark, rational appearance. Postmodernists felt the buildings of modern architecture failed to meet the human need of comfort for both: the body and the eye !

The Solution to Modernism : 

The Solution to Modernism Architects started turning away from Modern Functionalism. They viewed it as boring, unwelcoming, and even unpleasant. Postmodernists sought to cure this by reintroducing ornament and decoration for its own sake. Form was no longer defined only by its functional requirements it now could be anything the architect pleased! It replaced the functional and formalized shapes seen in the modernist movement by: The use of diverse aesthetics, different styles colliding, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles

Characteristics of Postmodern Architecture : 

Characteristics of Postmodern Architecture Postmodern Architecture rejects the notion of “pure” or “perfect” detail, instead it draws from: all methods, materials, forms, & colors available to architects. Moves away from the neutral white colors seen in modernism. Took past components of different styles and melded them together to create new means of design. It is known for the re-emergence of surface ornament, reference to its surrounding buildings, and historical references. It was a time of revival of traditional elements and techniques. Post modernists did not believe to ignore past architecture but looked to it in order to learn from it. You will begin to see classical designs such as pillars, torches, arches, and domes used in new, almost humorous ways, just to send a message to the modernist people. It favored personal preferences and variety over objective truths and principles!

Robert Venturi : 

Robert Venturi Robert Venturi was at the head of the Postmodern Movement He is known for re-wording the famous saying of Mies van der Rohe’s: “Less is more” to "Less is a bore." In his book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, he states: “Architects can bemoan or try to ignore them (referring to the ornamental and decorative elements in buildings) or even try to abolish them, but they will not go away. Or they will not go away for a long time, because architects do not have the power to replace them (nor do they know what to replace them with).”

Robert Venturi : 

Robert Venturi He goes on to explain the need for ornament in his second book called Learning from Las Vegas (published in 1972). Venturi states decorative elements “accommodate existing needs for variety and communication”. He stresses that the building needs to communicate a meaning to the public. Postmodernists in general strive to achieve this communication through their buildings. This communication however is not intended to be a direct narration of the meaning. Venturi goes on to explain that it is rather intended to be a communication that could be interpreted in many ways. Because work of such quality will have many dimensions and layers of meaning.

Las Vegas is One of the Prime Examples of Postmodernism : 

Las Vegas is One of the Prime Examples of Postmodernism Las Vegas Strip

LAS VEGAS : 

LAS VEGAS Venetian Hotel & Casino Opened on May 3, 1999

Paris Hotel & Casino Las Vegas : 

Paris Hotel & Casino Las Vegas Opened on September 1, 1999

Bellagio Hotel & CasinoLas Vegas : 

Bellagio Hotel & CasinoLas Vegas Opened on October 15, 1998

Other Postmodern Architectures : 

Other Postmodern Architectures From all over the world..

City of Arts and Sciences Valencia, Spain : 

City of Arts and Sciences Valencia, Spain Entertainment-based cultural & Architectural Complex for tourists in the city of Valencia. Inside is an Imax Cinema & Planetarium Built in the shape of an eye & designed by Santiago Calatrava It opened to the public in April of 1998

Burj Al Arab (Tower of the Arabs) : 

Burj Al Arab (Tower of the Arabs) A hotel located in Prestigious Dubai A Postmodern Style, designed as a shape of a sail boat! The world’s tallest building. Designed by architect Tom Wills-Wright from 1994-1999

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The hotel lights up in different colors at night. Burj Al Arab

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The interior of Burj Al Arab is designed in a postmodern style by Khuan Chew

Bank of America Center (Houston, Texas) : 

Bank of America Center (Houston, Texas) Designed by award winning architect Phillip Johnson and partner John Burgee. Was completed in October 1983 Is reminiscent of the Dutch Gothic architecture. Has three segments each with a steeply pitched gabled roofline

Sony TowerManhattan, New York : 

Sony TowerManhattan, New York Formerly known as the AT&T Building Another building designed by Philip Johnson & John Burgee. Constructed in 1984 Has an ornamental top that challenged the architectural modernist’s demand for functionalism and purely efficient design

Guggenheim Museum BilbaoBilbao, Basque Country, Spain : 

Guggenheim Museum BilbaoBilbao, Basque Country, Spain A museum of modern and contemporary art Covered in titanium, it is intended to resemble a ship Designed by Architect Frank Gehry Architect Philip Johnson called it "the greatest building of our time" Opened to the public in 1997

Walt Disney Concert Hall : 

Walt Disney Concert Hall Also designed by Frank Gehry Located in Los Angeles, CA. Exterior designed with Stainless steel Opened on October 23, 2003

Michael Graves : 

Michael Graves One of the leading theorists & architects of Postmodernism. He is opinionated Energetic And boundlessly creative. Not only is he an architect but also an innovative artist. He has won numerous prizes and awards from such organizations as the American Institute of Architects and such professional journals as Progressive Architecture and Interiors. He has also exhibited his drawings and designs nationwide.

Slide 22: 

Graves found modernism alienating and created architecture to communicate with its surroundings and with the public. He borrows heavily from the past and especially important to him was ornament. His buildings are colorful, paradoxical, even witty hybrids of references. Michael Graves

How Graves became an Architect : 

How Graves became an Architect Graves was born on July 9, 1934 in Indianapolis, Indiana. As a child, he always wanted to be a painter. He loved to draw all day long. His mother told him that unless he was Picasso, drawing would not bring him any money. She said you can either be an engineer or an architect. He asked what an engineer was, and she told him. He then said he wanted to be an architect! His mom said I haven't even told you what an architect does! He didn't care what an architect did because there was no way he wanted to be an engineer! He now uses his creative artistic skills when designing buildings as an architect.

Graves’s Background & Education : 

Graves’s Background & Education Bachelor’s Degree from the University of Cincinnati Master’s Degree from Harvard University in 1959 Won a 2-year fellowship at American Academy in Rome In 1962, he returned to the U.S. and taught as a professor at Princeton University for 40 years

Michael Graves has become a household name as he designs domestic products known to be sold at Target. His most popular small scale item is the tea kettle design, which was produced in 1985. It has a red bird located on the spout which whistles once the water has boiled. : 

Michael Graves has become a household name as he designs domestic products known to be sold at Target. His most popular small scale item is the tea kettle design, which was produced in 1985. It has a red bird located on the spout which whistles once the water has boiled.

The Dolphin Hotel : 

The Dolphin Hotel An example of this is when he designed the Dolphin and Swan Hotels for Walt Disney World in Florida in 1990. The Dolphin Hotel is a turquoise and coral pyramid! A 63-foot-dolphin sits on top, and water cascades down the side. His buildings often combine whimsy and sophistication.

Slide 27: 

The Dolphin Hotel shows how Graves uses the traditional Pyramid found in past architecture and created his own whimsical version. The pyramid is designed in Turquoise and Coral colors that blend in with its natural surroundings found in Florida.

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You are greeted by this wonderful cascading waterfall! Dolphin Hotel

Slide 29: 

Close up view of the 63- foot Dolphin facing the pool side! Dolphin Hotel

Slide 30: 

What a Beautiful View of The Dolphin Hotel at Night..

Swan Hotel designed by Michael Graves in 1990 : 

Swan Hotel designed by Michael Graves in 1990

Slide 32: 

Graves disregards any form of straight lines seen in modern architecture. The roof line is curved, topped off with 47- foot high swans on each side that are certainly only for an aesthetic purpose! You also see wave-like turquoise accents painted on the outside of the building that adds to the whimsical feeling. Swan Hotel

Team Disney Building : 

Team Disney Building Built in 1991, this was the first building Graves had designed for Disney located in Burbank, CA.

Slide 34: 

Referencing historical Greek architectural columns, Graves uses the seven dwarfs from Snow White as 19- foot columns. Team Disney Building

Slide 35: 

The roof line on the other side has semi-circular arches. These circular elements along with the circular windows make it look less like a modernist box. Team Disney Building

Portland Building : 

Portland Building The first major postmodern building. It was an office building that needed a remodel. Graves' design was selected in a large design competition because it was the most cost efficient. Graves uses a variety of surface materials and colors with small windows and unnecessary decorative ornaments.

Slide 37: 

The design form of this building, consists of a classical organization including a base, the body, and the crown, which you can see all three levels in this picture. Portland Building

Slide 38: 

Michael Graves references Greek columns on the facade of the building Portland Building

Slide 39: 

At the front of the building sits, Portlandia, a large statue based on the Queen of Commerce represented in the Seal of the City of Portland. Michael Graves suggested this statue as part of his design. It was sculpted by Raymond J. Kaskey, the statue is 38 feet tall and weighs 6.5 tons! Portland Building

Humana Building : 

Humana Building It was designed by Michael Graves in 1982 It’s a 27-story skyscraper located in downtown Louisville, Kentucky The American Institute of Architects awarded it the National Honor Award in 1987.

Slide 41: 

Each side of the building is designed a little differently. The top has a pyramid shape. The building is also known for its exterior construction of flat pink granite. Graves did a good job blending this building with the existing old structures around it. Humana Building Side view

Washington Monument : 

Washington Monument The monument needed repair and restoration. Graves designed the idea to have the scaffolding be a design statement as well as a functional frame for the workers. He did this to stress the importance of restoration of buildings. It contains 37 miles of aluminum mesh that drape over the building like a hat. Graves uses nylon fabric and 800 lights to illuminate the monument at night.

Slide 43: 

Unfortunately, in 2003, an untreated sinus infection left Michael Graves paralyzed from the waist down. He now is confined to a wheelchair, but still continues to design. Graves now has a deeper understanding of the importance of accessibility, and has committed himself to improving health care products and facilities. When he was laying ill in a hospital bed he said “I do not want to die here because it’s so ugly”! Michael Graves

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