Concept map and critical thinking

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CONCEPT MAP AND CRITICAL THINKING I Wayan Sumardika Medical Education Unit Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University 2013

What is concept mapping?:

What is concept mapping? Concept mapping is a technique for representing knowledge in graphs. Knowledge graphs are networks of concepts. Networks consist of nodes and links. Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relations between concepts.

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Concepts and links are labeled. Links can be non-, uni - or bi-directional. Concepts and links may be categorized. They can be simply associative, Specified, or divided in categories such as causal or temporal relations.

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Concept mapping is an active, creative, visual and spatial learning activity in which concepts are organized according to their hierarchial relationships. To create concept map, students: Must understand the information that will appear in the map Must relate and integrate the concept that will be recorded in the map Illustrates the student’s thinking about the multidirectional relationship that exist among the concepts

All Maps Have 3 Components:

All Maps Have 3 Components Nodes represent concepts. Lines represent relations between concepts, arrowheads indicate direction Labels on the lines describe the nature of the relationship. Combined, these three components create propositions or meaningful statements

Purposes of Concept Mapping:

Purposes of Concept Mapping to generate ideas to design a complex structure to communicate complex ideas to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding

Map structures can differ:

Map structures can differ Because concepts are perceived regularities in events or objects, individuals can have different conceptual understandings of the same topic. Thus, concept maps can be intrinsically different without being “wrong.”

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Types of Concept Maps Four major categories of concept maps "Spider": Organized by placing the central theme or unifying factor in the center of the map. Outwardly radiating sub-themes surround the center of the map. "Flowchart": Organizes information in a linear format. "Hierarchical": Presents information in a descending order of importance. The most important information is placed on the top. Distinguishing factors determine the placement of the information. "Systems": Organizes information in a format which is similar to a flowchart with the addition of 'INPUTS' and 'OUTPUTS'.

How to build a concept map (Novak’s 1998, cited in Zwall & Otting 2012):

How to build a concept map (Novak’s 1998, cited in Zwall & Otting 2012) Identify a focus question that addresses the problem, issues, or knowledge domain. Identify concept that are pertinent to the question and list it. Rank order the concepts by placing the broadest and most inclusive idea at the top/ center of the map Work the list and add more concept as needed Begin to build your map by placing the most inclusive, most general concept at the top/ center

How to build a concept map:

How to build a concept map 6. Select sub concept to place under each general concept 7. Connect the concepts by lines. Label the lines with one or a few linking words. 8. Rework the structure of the map. 9. Look for cross-link between concepts in different sections of the map and label these lines 10. Concept map could be made in many different form.

Concept mapping as a student learning tool:

Concept mapping as a student learning tool To learn course material Students can use concept maps to take class notes. Students can use concept maps to organize class notes or course material. To integrate course content Students can use concept maps to connect material learned throughout the semester. To integrate material across different courses Often students fail to see the relationship between different classes that they have taken . To assess their own learning A concept map can provide feedback to the student

Concept Mapping for Meaningful Learning:

Concept Mapping for Meaningful Learning Activity provides the students with an opportunity to organize, summarize, analyze, and evaluate many different ideas. Promotes the development of critical thinking skills, which can be used for others meaningful learning activities. Possible to identify misconceptions, incongruities and weakness. May recognize a new component of a concept and or a new relationship between concepts, which can lead to deeper understanding of the material.

Critical Thinking:

Critical Thinking The intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfuly conceptualising, applying, synthesising, and or evaluating information. In medicine: those who think critically collect information, engage in extensive history taking, perform focused physical examinations, order tests, consult with experts and go to literature.

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Physician demonstrating critical thinking sometimes reflected on their own biases, were self-conscious about their reasoning processes, and were willing and able to verbalise their mental strategies. The absence of critical thinking sometimes reflected a poor knowledge base or an inability to manage complexity. Student who lack of self awareness of and sensitivity to complexity, their knowledge, skills and abilities may never come into play.

Creating a thinking environment:

Creating a thinking environment


References Pottier , P. Et all. Exploring how students think: a new method combining think-aloud and concept mapping protocols. Medical Education. 2010;44:926-935. Zwaal , W., & Otting , H. The Impact of Concept Mapping on the Process of the Problem-based Learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning. 2012;6(1):104-128. Johnstone , A. H., & Otis, K.H. Concept Mapping in Problem Based Learning: a cautionary tale. Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 2006;7 (2): 84-95 Pinto, A J., & Zeithz , H J. Concept mapping: a strategy for promoting meaningful learning in medical education. Medical Teacher. 1997;19 (2): 114-121. Krupat , E., et all. Thinking critically about critical thinking: ability, disposition or both? Medical Education. 2011;45:625-635.



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