Eubacteria and Archaebacteria

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

BACTERIA : 

BACTERIA 1 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Archaebacteria & Eubacteria : 

Archaebacteria & Eubacteria All bacteria can be classified into 2 kingdoms: Kingdom Archabacteria Kingdom Eubacteria 2 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Archaebacteria & Eubacteria : 

Archaebacteria & Eubacteria General Characteristics: Single celled Prokaryotic (no nucleus) Contain no-membrane bound organelles (ie. No nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc.) Have single chromosome in form of DNA loop called a plasmid Reproduce asexually by binary fission 3 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Archaebacteria : 

Archaebacteria Archae means primitive or early Oldest organisms on the planet – 3 billion years old Live in EXTREME CONDITIONS – environments in which no other organisms can survive 4 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Archaebacteria : 

Archaebacteria Characterized by living in extreme conditions which have: High temperatures High salt concentrations High acidity Most live in environments with no oxygen Conditions are similar to those when life on Earth evolved 5 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Eubacteria : 

Eubacteria 6 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Eubacteria : 

Eubacteria Most studied form of bacteria Can be classified according to: Shape Configuration Respiration Type of nutrition 7 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Respiration & Nutrition : 

Respiration & Nutrition Classifying Eubacteria by respiration (oxygen?): Obligate aerobes require oxygen Obligate anaerobes grow only in absence of oxygen Facultative anaerobes survive with or without oxygen 8 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Reproduction & Growth : 

Reproduction & Growth Asexual Reproduction Called “binary fission” Major steps: Bacterial DNA (plasmid) duplicates Cell wall of bacteria grows (lengthens) Cross wall develops between two halves of bacteria, creating two separate bacteria 9 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Binary Fission : 

Binary Fission 10 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Reproduction & Growth : 

Reproduction & Growth Sexual Reproduction Called “conjugation” Major Steps: Cell to cell contact via cytoplasmic bridge (sex pilus) Plasmids (DNA) are transferred across the bridge (donor to recipient) Recipient receives new genes 11 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Conjugation : 

Conjugation 12 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Conjugation : 

Conjugation Notice sex pilus 13 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Endospore Formation : 

Endospore Formation Adaptation used to survive unfavorable environmental conditions Genetic material becomes encased & protected by a thick resistant cell wall 14 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Endospore Formation : 

Endospore Formation Endospore is resistant to heat & not easily destroyed Bacteria emerges from endospore in favorable environmental conditions 15 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Endospore Formation : 

Endospore Formation 16 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Endospore Formation(animation) : 

Endospore Formation(animation) 17 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Endospore Germination (animation) : 

Endospore Germination (animation) 18 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Bacteria & Human Beings : 

Bacteria & Human Beings 19 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Useful Bacteria : 

Useful Bacteria Bacteria are very useful in many environmental processes / industrial processes Examples Production of vinegar Fixing Nitrogen in soil Formation of dairy products (yogurt, cheese, etc.) Decomposers (breakdown organic substances) Source of some antibiotics 20 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Harmful Effects : 

Harmful Effects Some bacteria can have harmful effects by: Growing to numerous in the host Destroying host cells and tissue Producing toxins which are harmful to the host Infection is spread by moisture droplets, dust, direct contact, fecal contamination, animal bites and wounds 21 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Bacterial Diseases : 

Bacterial Diseases Leprosy 22 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Bacterial Diseases : 

Bacterial Diseases Tetanus caused by bacterial toxins 23 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Bacterial Diseases : 

Bacterial Diseases Botulism (toxins, respiratory, m-paralysis) 24 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Bacterial Diseases : 

Bacterial Diseases Cholera (dehydration, stool, etc.) 25 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Defense Against Disease : 

Defense Against Disease Body provides own defenses (skin, acidic stomach, lysozyme in eyes, immune system) Sterilization/disinfection of surfaces can reduce disease further (wash your hands!!) Antibiotics are chemicals that kill bacteria but don’t harm host cells Bacteria have evolved to resist many of today’s antibiotics 26 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Antibiotic Resistance : 

Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria can be grown on agar plates to test for antibiotic resistance 27 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Antibiotic Resistance : 

Antibiotic Resistance Zones of inhibition around the disks shows the effectiveness of the antibiotics 28 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Antibiotic Resistance : 

Antibiotic Resistance Some bacteria have become resistant to almost all current antibiotics 29 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

authorStream Live Help