Properties of Matter

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Properties of Matter? : 

Properties of Matter? 1 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

In the Universe : 

In the Universe All things in our universe are made of Energy Matter: the material of everything in the universe 2 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Energy : 

Energy Energy: the ability to do work Some examples of Energy: Heat Light Chemical 3 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Matter : 

Matter Matter is anything that: has mass, and takes up space MASS is a measure of the amount of “stuff” (or material) the object contains (don’t confuse this with weight, a measure of gravity) VOLUME is a measure of the space occupied by the object M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 4

Volume : 

Volume The most commonly used metric units for volume are the litre (L) and the milliliter (mL). A liter is a cube 1 dm long on each side. A milliliter is a cube 1 cm long on each side. M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 5

Matter : 

Matter Atoms are the building blocks of matter M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 6

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter : 

Classification of Matter

Pure Substances : 

Pure Substances M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 17 ELEMENTS Simplest kind of matter, which can’t be broken down any further and still has the properties of that element All one kind of atom.

Pure Substances : 

Pure Substances M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 18 COMPOUNDS Made of two or more atoms, chemically combined Can be broken down only by chemical methods If broken down, the substances created have new properties

Scientific Method : 

Scientific Method A systematic approach to solving problems M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 19

Scientific Method : 

Scientific Method Two classifications of observations, exist in science M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 20 Qualitative Observations Observations with “qualities” No exact measurements Quantitative Observations An attempt to “quantify” by measuring Have a number value Involve exact measurements

Scientific Method : 

Scientific Method Precision Is how repeatable your measurements or observations are. Do you always get the exact same measurement M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 21 Accuracy How accurate or “correct” your measurements are Good accuracy means you and others get the same consistent results

Accuracy vs. Percision : 

Accuracy vs. Percision M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 22

Physical Properties : 

Physical Properties 23 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Physical Properites : 

Physical Properites A property that can be observed and measured without changing the material’s composition. Examples – colour, hardness, melting point, boiling point. These can be observed qualitatively or measured quantitatively. M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 24

Physical Properties : 

Physical Properties Changes that alter the physical form of matter, without changing its identify are called physical changes For example, states of matter are physical properties. M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 25

Physical Properties : 

Physical Properties

States of Matter : 

Solid Liquid Gas States of Matter

States of Matter : 

States of Matter M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 28

Copper Phases - Solid : 

Copper Phases - Solid M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 29

Copper Phases - Liquid : 

Copper Phases - Liquid M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 30

Copper Phases - Gas : 

Copper Phases - Gas M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 31

Importance of Physical Properites : 

Importance of Physical Properites Descriptions you use to identify a substance You can use these “properties” to figure out what something is 32 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Physical Properties : 

Physical Properties Lets look at some examples of PHYSICAL properties..... 33 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Hardness : 

Hardness Resistance of a solid piece of matter to being scratched or dented. Measured with the Mohs Hardness Scale 34 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Mohs Hardness Scale : 

Mohs Hardness Scale M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 35

Hardness : 

Hardness Diamond is the hardest natural solid and it can scratch other diamonds, for this reason diamonds are often used to cut. Graphite and diamond are two different forms of carbon, we use graphite in pencils. Graphite is much softer. M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 36

Hardness : 

Hardness Lets compare the hardness of.... 37 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Hardness : 

Hardness Lets compare the hardness of.... 38 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Elasticity : 

Elasticity The ability of a solid object to return to its original shape, after being stretched. Elastic Limit is the amount of force needed, before you permanently stretch or break the object M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 39

Elasticity : 

Elasticity M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 40

Elasticity – Imp0rtance? : 

Elasticity – Imp0rtance? M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 41

Melting Point : 

Melting Point Temperature at which something turns from a solid to a liquid 42 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Melting Point : 

Melting Point Iron 1538 C 43 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Melting Point : 

Melting Point 44 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Boiling Point : 

Boiling Point Temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas Boiling points are different for different substances Example – Salt Water, Pure Water, Oil, Nitrogen 45 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Boiling Point : 

Boiling Point Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of -196 ◦C M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 46

Liquid Nitrogen – Class Version : 

Liquid Nitrogen – Class Version M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 47

Liquid Nitrogen – Online Version : 

Liquid Nitrogen – Online Version M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 48

Boiling Point : 

Boiling Point Lets try it out...... Water boils at _________ Salt water boils at _________ Oil boils at _________ 49 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Viscosity : 

Viscosity Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid or gas to flowing. Think of it as “internal friction”. High Viscosity – have lots of friction, therefore do not move or flow easily. Low viscosity – have less friction, therefore move and flow easily. 50 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Viscosity : 

Viscosity Lets guess the viscosity Honey has a ______ viscosity 51 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Viscosity : 

Viscosity Lets guess the viscosity Toothpaste has a ______ viscosity 52 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Viscosity : 

Viscosity Lets guess the viscosity Water has a ______ viscosity 53 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Solubility : 

Solubility How much of a solute can be dissolved into a solvent 54 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Solubility : 

Solubility You dissolve 10 grams of flour into 50 ml of water. What is the solute? Flour What is the solvent? Water 55 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Solubility Test of Sugar vs Salt : 

Solubility Test of Sugar vs Salt Question? Will more sugar or salt dissolve in water? We test the solubility by adding 15 grams of Sugar into 3 tablespoons of water 15 grams of Salt into 3 table spoons of water We found that ______ has a higher solubility 56 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Conductivity : 

Conductivity Conductivity can be electrical or thermal Heat Conductivity – ability of a substance to transfer heat Electrical Conductivity – ability of a substance to transfer electricity 57 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Other Physical Properties : 

Other Physical Properties There are other physical properties including: Colour Smell (odour) Density – covered tomorrow Malleability – how easily a metal bends 58 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Chemical Properties : 

Chemical Properties 59 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Chemical Properties : 

Chemical Properties A property that can only be observed by changing the composition of the material. You are describing how an object changes or resists change Examples- ability to burn, decompose, ferment, react with, etc. M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.) 60

Chemical Properties : 

Chemical Properties The behaviour of a chemical while it becomes a NEW substance Ex – Burning Wood Release heat Makes smoke & ash 61 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Chemical Properties : 

Chemical Properties Example 2: Sodium Carbonate and Acid Sodium Carbonate + HCl  Carbon Dioxide + Water 62 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Chemical Properties : 

Chemical Properties 63 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Chemical Properties : 

Chemical Properties Lets look at some examples of chemical properties..... 64 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

1) Light Sensitivity : 

1) Light Sensitivity Some substances will change into new substances when exposed to light Ex. – Medicine Bottles 65 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

1) Light Sensitivity : 

1) Light Sensitivity 66 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

1) Light Sensitivty : 

1) Light Sensitivty 67 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

2) Combustibility : 

2) Combustibility The ability of a substance to BURN Note – burning requires presence of oxygen (air) 68 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Is it Combustible? : 

Is it Combustible? Wood..... YES! 69 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Is it Combustible? : 

Is it Combustible? Sand.... NO! 70 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Is it Combustible? : 

Is it Combustible? Alcohol.... YES! 71 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Is it Combustible? : 

Is it Combustible? Gasoline.... YES! 72 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)

Is it Combustible? : 

Is it Combustible? Cement.... NO! 73 M.BREGAR (Dante C.S.S.)