Classification of Living Things

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Presentation Transcript

Classification : 

1 Classification M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Species of Organisms : 

2 There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! New organisms are still being found and identified Species of Organisms M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

What is Classification? : 

3 What is Classification? Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities Classification is also known as taxonomy Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Benefits of Classifying : 

4 Benefits of Classifying Accurately & uniformly names organisms Prevents misnomers such as starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names Sea”horse”?? M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names : 

5 Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists : 

6 Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Early Taxonomists : 

7 Early Taxonomists 2000 years ago, Aristotle was the first taxonomist Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animals He subdivided them by their habitat ---land, sea, or air dwellers M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Early Taxonomists : 

8 Early Taxonomists John Ray, a botanist, was the first to use Latin for naming His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carolus Linnaeus1707 – 1778 : 

9 Carolus Linnaeus1707 – 1778 18th century taxonomist Classified organisms by their structure Developed naming system still used today M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carolus Linnaeus : 

10 Carolus Linnaeus Called the “Father of Taxonomy” Developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature Two-word name (Genus & species) M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Standardized Naming : 

11 Standardized Naming Binomial nomenclature used Genus species Latin or Greek Italicized in print Capitalize genus, but NOT species Underline when writing Turdus migratorius American Robin M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Binomial Nomenclature : 

12 Binomial Nomenclature M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Rules for Naming Organisms : 

13 Rules for Naming Organisms The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organisms All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress) This prevents duplicated names M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Classification Groups : 

14 Classification Groups Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups : 

15 Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species BROADEST TAXON M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 16: 

16 King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup! M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 17: 

17 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Domains : 

18 Broadest, most inclusive taxon Three domains Archaea and Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Domains M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 19: 

19 Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved. Sewage treatment plants, thermal vents, etc. M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 20: 

20 Eubacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth. Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially. Live in the intestines of animals M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms : 

21 Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms Protista (protozoans, algae…) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) Plantae (multicellular plants) Animalia (multicellular animals) M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protista : 

22 Protista Most are unicellular Some are multicellular Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Fungi : 

23 Fungi Multicellular, except yeast Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitin M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Plantae : 

24 Plantae Multicellular Autotrophic Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis Cell walls made of cellulose M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Animalia : 

25 Animalia Multicellular Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animals M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 26: 

26 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 27: 

27 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Taxons : 

28 Taxons Most genera contain a number of similar species, with the exception of Homo that only contains modern humans Classification is based on evolutionary relationships M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 29: 

29 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Basis for Modern Taxonomy : 

30 Basis for Modern Taxonomy Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Similar embryo development Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 31: 

31 Homologous Structures show Similarities in mammals. M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos : 

32 Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Cladogram : 

33 Cladogram Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Primate Cladogram : 

34 Primate Cladogram M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Dichotomous Keying : 

35 Dichotomous Keying Used to identify organisms Characteristics given in pairs Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Example of Dichotomous Key : 

36 Example of Dichotomous Key 1a Tentacles present – Go to 2 1b Tentacles absent – Go to 3 2a Eight Tentacles – Octopus 2b More than 8 tentacles – 3 3a Tentacles hang down – go to 4 3b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone 4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish 4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 37: 

37 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

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