Biology 11 - Protein & Protein Synthesis

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Presentation Description

An introduction to proteins and protein synthesis

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By: Lide (61 month(s) ago)

very educational and well done

Presentation Transcript

Proteins : 

Proteins 1 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Proteins : 

Proteins Have multiple functions: Antibodies (part of immune system) Enzymes (biological catalysts) Transport of materials Building Materials (muscles) Proteins are obtained from food High in Protein = meat, fish, milk, eggs, cheese, & nuts 2 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Transport of Materials : 

Transport of Materials 3 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Structure : 

Protein Structure Proteins are polymers of amino acids A protein is made of between 300 and 4000 amino acids Amino Acids 20 different amino acids 8 are essential & must be obtained from diet 4 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 5: 

5 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Amino Acid Structure : 

Amino Acid Structure Contain the elements, C, H, O & Nitrogen Basic Structure 3 parts: amino group, carboxyl group, R-group R-group gives each amino acid with its unique properties 6 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Synthesis (Making Protein) : 

Protein Synthesis (Making Protein) Amino Acids are linked to make polypeptides Polypeptides come together to make protein Peptide Bonds Bonds which link amino acids together Formed by a dehydration synthesis 7 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Structure : 

Protein Structure Rule: “Structure = Function” Physical structure of a protein determines how it works Protein Structure has 4 levels of organization Primary (structure of amino acids) Secondary (helix) Tertiary (secondary structure folds) Quaternary (two or more polypeptide chains) 8 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Enzymes : 

Enzymes 9 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Structure : 

Protein Structure 10 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Structure : 

Protein Structure 11 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Denaturation : 

Denaturation When a protein loses its shape due to environmental factors Can be caused by: Heating above40C Change in pH (acidity) Other ways: chemicals or mechanical action Coagulation is “permanent” denaturation 12 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS : 

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 13

Protein Synthesis : 

Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is the process in which information from DNA is used to make protein Involves two basic process: TRANSCRIPTION – DNA is copied into mRNA TRANSLATION – information from mRNA is translated into protein 14 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Transcription : 

Transcription Takes place inside the nucleolus of a cell DNA serves as a template for the making of messenger RNA (mRNA) 15 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Transcription : 

Transcription RNA Polymerase unwinds DNA Process begins at promoter region RNA by complimenting bases of DNA Process ends at terminator region 16 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Messenger RNA : 

Messenger RNA 17 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Translation : 

Translation The process in which the mRNA is read and a protein is made Structures involved: mRNA – carries genetic information Ribosome – reads mRNA and assemble amino acids tRNA – carries amino acids 18 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Translation : 

Translation 19 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Synthesis – Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes : 

Protein Synthesis – Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes 20 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Translation : 

Translation Steps: Messenger RNA is read by ribosome Transfer RNA carry amino acids which are put together for every codon Amino acids eventually form a peptide 21 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Translation : 

Translation 22 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Synthesis – The Entire Process : 

Protein Synthesis – The Entire Process 23 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein Synthesis - Endomembrane : 

Protein Synthesis - Endomembrane 24 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

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