Biology 11 - Carbohydrates

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Presentation Transcript

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates 1 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates Source of energy for living organisms Molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Ex. Glucose is C6H12 O6 2 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbohydrates Give Us Energy : 

Carbohydrates Give Us Energy 3 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates Three types of CHO’s: Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES 4 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates 5 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Monosaccharides : 

Monosaccharides Only 1 sugar unit – monomer Examples: Glucose – energy in cell Fructose – fruit sugar sugar 6 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Monosaccharides : 

Monosaccharides Glucose is found in sport drinks Fructose is found in fruit Glucose & Fructose found in honey Galactose – milk sugar 7 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Monosaccharides : 

Monosaccharides Classified based on the number of carbon atoms 8 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) TRIOSE – C3H6O3 TRIOSE – 3 sugars TETROSES – 4 sugars PENTOSE – 5 sugars HEXOSE – 6 sugars HEPTOSE – 7 sugars

Slide 9: 

9 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) PENTOSE – C5H10O5 HEXOSE – C6H12O6

Monosaccharides : 

Monosaccharides ISOMERS are compounds with the: same chemical formula but different structure 10 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Isomers : 

Isomers Glucose & Fructose are isomers because they’re structures are different, but their chemical formulas are the same 11 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Examples of Isomers : 

Examples of Isomers 12 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) VS

Examples of Isomers : 

Examples of Isomers 13 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) VS

Examples of Isomers : 

Examples of Isomers 14 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) VS VS

Polysaccharides : 

Polysaccharides Made of 2 or more sugar units – polymer Example: Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose (mono) (mono) (disaccharide) 15 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Examples of Polysaccharides : 

16 Examples of Polysaccharides Starch Glycogen Cellulose Glucose Monomer

Making Polysaccharides : 

Making Polysaccharides Dehydration Synthesis (condensation reaction) Removing water to make a larger molecule ie. Involved in making a disaccharide 17 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Breaking Polysaccharides : 

Breaking Polysaccharides Hydrolysis The opposite reaction Water is used to break large molecule into smaller one 18 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Closer look at Hydrolysis / Condensation : 

Closer look at Hydrolysis / Condensation 19 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates Polysaccharides A complex carbohydrate POLYMER: Long chains of monosaccharides 20 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Condensation Reactions(polysaccharides) : 

Condensation Reactions(polysaccharides) 21 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Important Polysaccharides : 

Important Polysaccharides STARCH A plant polysaccharide Energy storage molecule for plants Animals obtain energy from starch (potatoes, grain, and rice) by breaking it into glucose 22 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Important Polysaccharides : 

Important Polysaccharides GLYCOGEN An animal polysaccharide Excess sugar is stored temporarily in the form of glycogen Glycogen stores are found near muscle/liver cells 23 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Important Polysaccharides : 

Important Polysaccharides CELLULOSE Most abundant organic molecule on Earth Makes up fibrils – tough “cables” in cellular walls of plants No nutritional value for humans, but provides roughage (dietary fiber) 24 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Cellulose : 

25 Cellulose SUGARS

Dietary Cellulose : 

26 Dietary Cellulose Herbivores have bacteria in their digestive tracts that can break down cellulose

Important Polysaccharides : 

Important Polysaccharides Chitin Modified form of cellulose Forms exterior skeleton of insects and crustaceans (shrimp, lobsters, etc.) 27 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbohydrates and Fats Work Together : 

Carbohydrates and Fats Work Together 28 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Glucose Fuels the Body : 

Glucose Fuels the Body Large carbohydrates are broken down, before being used Small carbohydrates (glycogen) are stored for “immediate needs” of the body. 29 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Respiration Releases The Potential Energy in Glucose : 

Respiration Releases The Potential Energy in Glucose 30 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

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