Biology 11 - The Chemistry of Life

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Presentation Transcript

The Chemistry of Life : 

The Chemistry of Life 1 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Introduction : 

Introduction Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen compose 90% of all living things Substances in living cells are classified as: Organic Compounds Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Actual building blocks of cells Inorganic Compounds Not part of the cell’s structure Involved in cellular function 2 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Uses of Organic Compounds : 

Uses of Organic Compounds North Americans consume an average of 145 pounds of sugar per person per year 3 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) CELLULOSE Found in plant cell walls, Most abundant organic compound on Earth

Slide 4: 

M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 4

Carbon : 

Carbon Cell’s are mostly water, but the structural components of cells contain mostly carbon-based molecules Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon-based molecules 5 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Organic Chemistry : 

Organic Chemistry Carbon forms the “skeleton” of organic molecules 6 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 7: 

QUESTION Why is Carbon such a versatile molecule? Why does it form the skeleton of organic molecules? 7 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

A Versatile Atom : 

A Versatile Atom Lets look at Carbons atomic information Draw a Bohr Diagram of a Carbon atom 8 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 9: 

9 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

A Versatile Atom : 

A Versatile Atom Carbon has 4 electrons in a shell that holds 8 Importance: Can form 4 separate covalent bonds Bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds 10 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbon The Element of Life : 

Carbon The Element of Life 11 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

A Versatile Atom : 

A Versatile Atom 12 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Hydrocarbons : 

Hydrocarbons The simplest carbon containing compounds Contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms 13 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Carbon Can Use It’s Bonds to: : 

Carbon Can Use It’s Bonds to: Attach to other carbon atoms Form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons 14 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Large Hydrocarbons : 

Large Hydrocarbons Are the main molecules in the gasoline we burn in our cars The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies 15 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Hydrocarbons : 

Hydrocarbons 16 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Functional Groups : 

Functional Groups M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 17

Functional Groups : 

Functional Groups Groups of atoms that give properties to the compounds to which they attach Chemical reactions take place between functional groups 18 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Functional Groups : 

Functional Groups 19 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Common Functional Groups : 

Common Functional Groups 20 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Functional Groups - Video : 

Functional Groups - Video 21 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

WATER : 

WATER M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 22

Water : 

Water Makes up 70 to 90% of all living things 75% of the Earth is covered in water. If the Earth was flat, it would be under 3 km of water 23 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Water : 

Water Water (H2O) is a polar molecule Shared electrons spend more time with oxygen than with hydrogen creates dipoles In water: O has weak negative charge H has weak positive charge 24 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Dipoles in Water : 

Dipoles in Water 25 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Properties of Water : 

Properties of Water 26 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Hydrogen Bonds : 

Hydrogen Bonds Water molecules at attracted to each other because of these +/- dipoles They may bond together via HYDROGEN BONDS 27 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Hydrogen Bonds : 

Hydrogen Bonds 28 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Properties of Water : 

Properties of Water 29 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Properties of Water : 

Properties of Water Water has some key properties allowing it to sustain life: High Heat Capacity Specific Heat – Energy required to change a substances temperature Why? Hydrogen bonds absorb the energy Benefit Allows living things to control temperature in their body 30 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Properties of Water : 

Properties of Water High Heat of Vaporization Takes a lot of energy to covert water to a gas 540 cal. per 1 g Why? Hydrogen bonds must be broken before water molecules will vaporize Benefit Living things can control body heat this way 31 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Properties of Water : 

Properties of Water Water is an Excellent Solvent Water can dissolve substances easily Why? Charges allow water molecules to interact easily with substances Benefit Living things use water to carry substances 32 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Water Dissolving Salt : 

Water Dissolving Salt 33 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Properties of Water : 

Properties of Water Water molecules are: Cohesive – stick together Adhesive – stick to polar surfaces Benefit: Living things use water to transport substances 34 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Properties of Water : 

Properties of Water Water Has High Surface Tension Water molecules stick together because of hydrogen bonding Benefit: allows things living things to “walk on water” 35 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Jesus Lizard : 

Jesus Lizard 36 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Water : 

Water 37 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Macromolecules : 

Macromolecules M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 38

Polymers : 

Polymers POLYMERS are large molecules made of repeating units Individual units area called MONOMERS Biologists call polymers MACROMOLECULES 39 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Organic Compounds : 

Organic Compounds Macromolecules The four types are: Carbohydrates Lipids Protein Nucleic Acids 40 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Most Macromolecules are Polymers : 

41 Most Macromolecules are Polymers Polymers are made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers Nucleic Acid Monomer