Nitrogen Cycle

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the NitrogenCycle : 

the NitrogenCycle 1 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Nitrogen Cycle? : 

Nitrogen Cycle? A nutrient cycle in which nitrogen atoms are circulated through the living and non-living environment Problem: 79% of atmosphere made of nitrogen (N2) Living things can’t use nitrogen directly 2 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Getting Nitrogen : 

Getting Nitrogen Organisms can’t get nitrogen directly, so get it in a usable form called nitrates Nitrogen (N2) (in atmosphere) Nitrates(NO3)- 3 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Getting Nitrogen : 

Getting Nitrogen Examples: Heterotrophs: animals obtain nitrogen stored in the food they eat Autotrophs: plants obtain nitrogen in the form of nitrates from soil 4 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 5: 

5 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Why is Nitrogen Important? : 

Why is Nitrogen Important? Nitrogen atoms are an important part of: Proteins – building material of living things. Example – muscles are made of protein 6 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Lawn with little nitrogen : 

Lawn with little nitrogen 7 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Lawn with adequate nitrogen : 

Lawn with adequate nitrogen 8 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Fertilizer – source of nitrogen : 

Fertilizer – source of nitrogen 9 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Fertilizer – source of nitrogen : 

Fertilizer – source of nitrogen 10 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein in hemoglobin (Blood) : 

Protein in hemoglobin (Blood) 11 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein in muscles : 

Protein in muscles 12 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein in hair : 

Protein in hair 13 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Protein in Fingernails : 

Protein in Fingernails 14 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Why is Nitrogen Important? : 

Why is Nitrogen Important? DNA – molecule in body which contains hereditary information (instructions for life) 15 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Steps of the Nitrogen Cycle : 

Steps of the Nitrogen Cycle 16 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Overview : 

Overview Nitrogen cycle Nitrogen Fixation: Obtaining nitrogen from air, to be used by living things Denitrification: Returning nitrogen back into the air 17 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Nitrogen Fixation : 

Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen Fixation is conversion of nitrogen from atmosphere into nitrates to be used by plants Nitrogen Nitrates  Nitrogen Fixation occurs in two ways: 1) lightning and 2) nitrogen fixing bacteria 18 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

1) Lightning : 

1) Lightning Energy from converts nitrogen and oxygen in the air into nitrates. Energy + Nitrogen + Oxygen  Nitrates 19 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

1) Lightning (cont’) : 

1) Lightning (cont’) Rain carries nitrates down into soil Plants absorb nitrates and water through their roots Note – nitrates contain nitrogen! 20 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

1) Lightning (cont’) : 

1) Lightning (cont’) Plants stored nitrogen in their bodies Nitrogen is passed through the food webs in the food we eat. 21 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 22: 

22 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 23: 

23 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria : 

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Bacteria in the soil convert nitrogen into nitrates. Why? Bacteria get food (sugar) from plants Bacteria release nitrates into soil which plants absorb 24 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria (nodules) : 

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria (nodules) 25 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria : 

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria NOTE: not all plants have nitrogen fixing bacteria, only legumes (clover, pea, alfalfa). 26 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria : 

2) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria QUESTION: How would clovers growing on your front lawn benefit the grass? 27 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 28: 

28 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Denitrification : 

Denitrification The opposite of nitrogen fixation Bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen Completes nitrogen cycle, ensures a balance of nitrates in soil and nitrogen in atmosphere 29 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 30: 

30 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Decomposers : 

Decomposers When an animal dies, its body contains nitrogen (obtained from the food eaten) Decomposers help release this nitrogen back into the nitrogen cycle 31 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 32: 

32 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 33: 

33 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 34: 

34 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 35: 

35 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

INTERFERING WITH THE NITROGEN CYCLE : 

INTERFERING WITH THE NITROGEN CYCLE 36 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

SUBSISTENCE FARMING : 

SUBSISTENCE FARMING Natural farming. Farming to the “natural tolerance” of the soil. Advantage: does not overuse the soil, no fertilizers, eco-friendly Disadvantage: small amounts of food 37 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

SUBSISTENCE FARMING : 

SUBSISTENCE FARMING 38 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

COMMERCIAL FARMING : 

COMMERCIAL FARMING This is large scale farming, in which fields are “overplanted” Crop plants use up naturally occurring nitrates in the soil 39 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

ONTARIO’s GREEN BELT : 

ONTARIO’s GREEN BELT 40 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

NIAGRA – the Fruit belt : 

NIAGRA – the Fruit belt 41 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 42: 

Problem: Crops planted yearly, using up all nitrogen in soil Nitrogen needs to be replaced 42 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Slide 43: 

43 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Commercial farming : 

Commercial farming Replace nitrogen by placing: Chemical Fertilizers or Natural Fertilizers (manure) directly into the soil 44 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Algal bloom : 

Algal bloom Fertilizers washed out by rain into streams and rivers Extra nitrogen stimulates growth of water plants Plants use up all oxygen in the water 45 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Algal bloom : 

Algal bloom Plants use up all oxygen in the water Kills all life in the pond 46 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Algal bloom : 

Algal bloom 47 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

Algal Bloom : 

Algal Bloom 48 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)