species interaction

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Species Interaction:

Species Interaction

SPECIES INTERACTION:

SPECIES INTERACTION Species Interaction Species (individual populations) live & interact together to form a community Interactions between populations affect population dynamics Types of Interactions include: Competition Predation Parasitism Herbivory Commensalism Mutualism

COMPETITION:

COMPETITION

COMPETITION:

COMPETITION In competition, species compete for different resources Plants: water, light, nutrients, pollen Animals: food, water, mates, shelter

COMPETITION:

COMPETITION Competition occurs because resources are limited Competition can occur Intraspecific Competition within a single species (competing for a mate) or Intrespecific Competition between different species (lions & cheetahs hunting a gazelle)

INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION:

INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION Species attempt to avoid real competition between ritualized behavior

MATING RITUALS:

MATING RITUALS Mating behavior is highly ritualized, with the intention of showing fitness to potential mates

MATING RITUALS:

MATING RITUALS

INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION:

INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION Most competition is sexual in nature They involve fighting for a mate

INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION:

INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION

INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION:

INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION Competition between different species for resources Competition occurs for resources (food, territory, etc.)

INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION:

INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION One species outcompetes the other Experiments with bacteria: When grown separately When grown together

COMPETITION:

COMPETITION Competitive Exclusion Principle No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time

COMPETITION:

COMPETITION Organisms may develop differences in niches because of competition for resources. Resource Partitioning – species coexist by using only part of the available resources Ex: some birds eat the same insects, but hunt for them in different places

COMPETITION:

COMPETITION Resource Partitioning : species coexist by using only part of the available resources

PREDATION:

PREDATION

PREDATION:

PREDATION When one organism feeds on another Predator obtains food item via Prey This is a predator-prey interaction

PREDATOR PREY INTERACTIONS:

PREDATOR PREY INTERACTIONS

SYMBIOSIS:

SYMBIOSIS

SYMBIOSIS:

SYMBIOSIS Symbiosis is when organisms are dependent on each other for survival One organism always benefits from the arrangement Types of Symbiosis Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism

PARASITISM:

PARASITISM

PARASITISM:

PARASITISM When one directly lives off of another organism Host provides the parasite with required resources (food, shelter, etc.) Sometimes a host may survive, many parasites can be fatal.

PARASITISM:

PARASITISM

Parasitism Human Worms:

Parasitism Human Worms

PARASITISM:

PARASITISM

PARASITISM:

PARASITISM There are 2 different types of parasites: Ectoparasites External parasites – live on the outside of the host Ex: ticks, fleas, mosquitoes Endoparasites Internal parasites – live inside the host’s body Ex: bacteria, protists , tapeworms

PARASITISM:

PARASITISM

MUTUALISM:

MUTUALISM

MUTUALISM:

MUTUALISM Two organisms interacting for a mutual benefit They exist in a symbiotic relationship Interaction is good for BOTH species The symbiotic relationship is beneficial to both species, in ensuring their survival

MUTUALISM:

MUTUALISM Red-billed Oxpeckers Ride on the backs of larger animals (buffalo, giraffes, etc.) Eat parasites (ticks) from these larger animals, which could infect the animal with disease Benefit = Oxpecker (food) & Larger Animal (loss of parasite)

MUTUALISM:

MUTUALISM

COMMENSALISM :

COMMENSALISM

COMMENSALISM:

COMMENSALISM One species survives off another species, without causing harm One species derives a benefit from interaction The other species is not harmed or does not benefit from the relationship Example – In rainforest, certain vines benefit by growing on trees which do not benefit or get harmed

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