Organic Chemistry - Introduction

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This powerpoint ppt presentation covers the basic college/undergraduate organic chemistry topics. The file is regularly updated based on the progress of a five-month semestral course.

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Organic Chemistry:

Organic Chemistry DLTE

Contents:

Contents Introduction Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Substituted Hydrocarbons

Contents:

Contents Introduction Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Electronic Structure of Carbon Atom Hybridization and Types of Hybrid Orbitals Nature of Covalent Bonding in Carbon Functional Groups General Classification of Organic Compounds Uses of Organic Compounds Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Substituted Hydrocarbons

Contents:

Contents Introduction Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Alkenes and Cycloalkenes Alkynes Aromatic Hydrocarbons Substituted Hydrocarbons

Contents:

Contents Introduction Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzene and Its Derivatives Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Heterocyclic Compounds Substituted Hydrocarbons

Contents:

Contents Introduction Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Substituted Hydrocarbons Alcohols Phenols Ethers Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Amines

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry:

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Definition of Organic Chemistry Study of carbon compounds (except CO, CO 2 , carbonates, hydrogencarbonates, carbides and cyanides) obtained from natural sources or synthesized in the laboratories. What is an organic compound? Has one or more carbon atoms Has many hydrogen atoms May also contain O, N, P, S and halogens

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry:

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Why study carbon? Why do we pay special attention to just one element from among 118? In fact, carbon is not even among the ten most abundant elements. Abundance of the elements in the Earth’s crust

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry:

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Development of Organic Chemistry 1807 – Jons Jakob Berzelius coined the term organic Organic compounds – obtained from living organisms Inorganic compounds – obtained from non-living sources “Vital force” theory

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry:

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Development of Organic Chemistry 1828,.. Friedrich Wohler (father of organic chemistry) synthesized an organic compound from inorganic substances

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry:

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry How do inorganic and organic compounds differ? bond type melting point boiling point flammability solubility conductivity

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry:

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry How do inorganic and organic compounds differ? Organic Compounds Inorganic Compounds Bonding is almost entirely covalent. Most have ionic bonds. Many are gases, liquids, or solids with low melting points (less than 360 O C). Most are solids with high melting points Most are insoluble in water. Many are soluble in water. Most are soluble in organic solvents. Almost all are insoluble in organic solvents. Aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity. Aqueous solutions form ions that conduct electricity. Almost all burn and decompose. Very few burn. Reactions are usually slow. Reactions are often very fast. Characteristics listed are generalizations, but are largely true for the vast majority of compounds of both types.

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry:

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry How do inorganic and organic compounds differ? Property Organic Compounds (Butane) Inorganic Compounds (Sodium chloride) Formula CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 NaCl Mass 58 g/mole 58.4 g/mole Bonding Covalent Ionic Physical state at room temp. Gas Solid Melting point - 139 O C 801 O C Boiling point - 0.4 O C 1433 O C Solubility in water Insoluble High (36 g/100 mL ) Solubility in organic solvents High Insoluble Flammability Flammable Nonflammable Electrical conductivity Nonconductor Conducts electricity in solution

Electronic Structure of the Carbon Atom:

Electronic Structure of the Carbon Atom Chemistry of Carbon 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2

Hybridization:

Hybridization sp 3 hybridization

Hybridization:

Hybridization sp, sp 2 and sp 3 hybridization Mixing of 1S and 3P S+P P P S+P+P P S+P+P+P

Hybridization:

Hybridization sp, sp 2 and sp 3 hybridization

Nature of Covalent Bonding in Carbon:

Nature of Covalent Bonding in Carbon In organic molecules, valence electrons are shared thus forming covalent bonds. C-C bonds are very strong C-C bonds can form long chains without breaking Can form multiple bonds Catenation: linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains

Nature of Covalent Bonding in Carbon:

Nature of Covalent Bonding in Carbon Comparison to other elements Bond strength decreases as bond length increases Bond strength decreases as number of lone pairs increases C–C > Si–Si > Ge–Ge > Sn–Sn C–C > N–N > O–O

Nature of Covalent Bonding in Carbon:

Nature of Covalent Bonding in Carbon Comparison to other elements * X = halogens

Functional Groups:

Functional Groups What is a functional group? Are sites of predictable chemical behavior — a particular functional group, in whatever compound it is found, undergoes the same types of chemical reactions. Determine in large measure the physical properties of a compound. Center of reactivity in a molecule Serve as the units by which we classify organic compounds into families. Serve as a basis for naming organic compounds

Functional Groups:

Functional Groups Common Functional Groups Class Functional Group Expanded Structural Formula Condensed Structural formula Common name Alkane None CH 3 CH 3 Ethane Alkene Ethylene Alkyne Acetylene

Functional Groups:

Functional Groups Common Functional Groups Class Functional Group Expanded Structural Formula Condensed Structural formula Common name Aromatic Benzene Alcohol Ethyl alcohol Ether Dimethyl ether

Functional Groups:

Functional Groups Common Functional Groups Class Functional Group Expanded Structural Formula Condensed Structural formula Common name Amine Methylamine Aldehyde Acetaldehyde Ketone Acetone

Functional Groups:

Functional Groups Common Functional Groups Class Functional Group Expanded Structural Formula Condensed Structural formula Common name Carboxylic acid Acetic acid Ester Methyl acetate Amide Acetamide

Functional Groups:

Functional Groups More functional groups halide monophosphate imine nitrile thiol sulfide disulfide

Functional Groups:

Functional Groups Problem: Identify the functional groups in each of the following molecules. Ibuprofen, a pain reliever Methionine, an amino acid Capsaicin, the pungent substance in chili peppers

Classification of Organic Compounds:

Classification of Organic Compounds Organic Compounds Hydrocarbons Substituted Hydrocarbons Aromatic Aliphatic Unsaturated Saturated Cyclic Acyclic Benzenoid Nonbenzenoid Alkenes Alkynes

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