Fingerprint Analysis : Fingerprint Analysis What is a Fingerprint? : What is a Fingerprint? Orangutan A fingerprint is the impression left upon any surface with which the finger comes in contact under pressure. The fingerprint pattern of any one individual remains unchanged
for life. Twins, triplets, quadruplets and quintuplets have completely different prints No two people have exactly the same fingerprints. All animals in the order Primates
have fingerprints A and C are twins History of Fingerprints : History of Fingerprints The first year for the first known systematic use of fingerprint identification began in the United States is 1902. The New York state prison system began to use fingerprints for the identification of criminals in 1903. During the first quarter of the 20th century, more and more local police identification bureaus established fingerprint systems. In 1924 the Identification Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was established to provide one central repository of fingerprints. In 1992 the Identification Division was re-established as the Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS). Slide 5: Maintains the National Repository of Criminal History Records and Criminal History Data CJIS Division
Identification and Investigative Services Section - 41 million subjects in the Criminal fingerprint file
- 40 million subjects in the Civil fingerprint file Each day approximately 7, 000 new individual records are added to the files. Criminal Justice Information Services or CJIS complex in West Virginia is home to a range of state-of-the-art technologies and statistical services that serve the FBI and the entire criminal justice community. The New Age of Electronic Fingerprint Identification : The New Age of Electronic Fingerprint Identification Fingerprints are now processed through the
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. The fingerprints are submitted electronically or by mail, processed on IAFIS, and a response is returned to the contributing agency within two hours or less for electronic criminal fingerprint submissions and twenty-four hours or less for electronic civil fingerprint submissions. Fingerprint processing has been reduced from weeks and months
hours and minutes. Classification of Fingerprints : Classification of Fingerprints Human fingerprint patterns fall into three main groups:
whorls, loops, and arches. Loops
the most common type, accounting for about 65% of all fingerprints. Whorls
account for 30% of fingerprints. Arches
account for 5% The three major groups are also subcategorized based upon smaller differences existing between the patterns within the specific group. : The three major groups are also subcategorized based upon smaller differences existing between the patterns within the specific group. How to Take Fingerprints : How to Take Fingerprints You will be rolling the print from “nail edge to nail edge”.
For the fingers on the right hand, you will be rolling from left to right. Thumbs are rolled in the opposite direction as the fingers: right to left. Using the ink and paper method, roll the finger on the ink pad so that the entire fingerprint pattern area is evenly covered with ink. Rolling Prints The ink should cover from one edge of the nail to the other and from the crease of the first joint to the tip of the finger. Using the right amount of ink is of vital importance. Too little ink and the impression will be too light. Too much ink and the fine details will run together. Slide 10: Plain or Flat Prints Press the index finger of your right hand onto the ink pad. Make sure that the finger is covered in ink. Press onto the appropriate spot on the fingerprint card. Repeat for each finger and thumb. Types of Fingerprints Found at a Crime Scene : Types of Fingerprints Found at a Crime Scene Visible – fingerprints that can be seen with the naked eye. Example: in blood or paint Plastic – fingerprints that leave an impression on objects.
Example: soap or wax Latent – fingerprints that are invisible.
Example: on glass Slide 12: Fingerprint powders are fine powders used dusting for latent fingerprints by crime scene investigators and others in law enforcement. Powders may be applied with a fingerprint brush, a brush with extremely fine fibers designed to hold powder, and deposit it gently on the fingerprint to be revealed, without rubbing away the often delicate residue of the fingerprint itself. Obtaining Latent Fingerprint Evidence at a Crime Scene Obtaining Latent Fingerprint Evidence at a Crime Scene : Obtaining Latent Fingerprint Evidence at a Crime Scene Obtain a SMALL amount of powder on the brush.
LIGHTLY apply to fingerprint area. Lift the print by placing the sticky side of the fingerprint tape on the dusted fingerprint and then carefully lifting the tape. The dusted fingerprint should stick to the tape. Place the tape on a fingerprint ID card for identification.