Crude_Oil

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Crude oil is a mixture. It can be separated in the lab into groups of substances with similar boiling points using distillation . Alkanes are the main hydrocarbon found in crude oil. They are called hydrocarbons because they only contain hydrogen and carbon. Alkanes contain only single bonds which means that they are saturated hydrocarbons. The general formula for alkanes is C n H ( 2n + 2). Here are the first four: CH 4 (methane) C 2 H 6 (ethane) C 3 H 8 (propane) C 4 H 10 (butane) The properties of hydrocarbons depend on their chain length. Longer chain hydrocarbons have a higher boiling point . They are also less volatile , more viscous and less flammable than shorter chains. Fractional distillation is used by industry to separate crude oil. Crude oil is fed into the bottom of the fractionating column . The bottom is very hot and the crude oil is vaporised The temperature of the column decreases as you move towards the top, so the gases condense into liquids when they reach their boiling points . Methane Ethane Propane Butane C1 Crude Oil and fuels Carbon Dioxide produced from burning fuels may be linked to global warming . Fuels may contain impurities such as sulfur ., when burned it reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide . When burning fuels in cars, the high temperature causes nitrogen to react with oxygen to form nitrogen oxides (NO). Together with sulphur dioxide, these cause acid rain and asthma Fuels may also burn incompletely to form carbon particulates (soot) which causes global dimming. Catalytic converters can be fitted into car engines which reduce the amount of CO and NO. Sulfur can be removed from fuels prior to burning. Smaller fractions like propane are useful fuels. When they burn in plenty of air they release energy, and two waste products, carbon dioxide and water. This is an oxidation reaction. E.g. Propane + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water If there is not enough oxygen present when a fuel burns, incomplete combustion takes place which forms Carbon Monoxide (CO). Biodiesel (made from vegetable oil) and ethano l (made from sugar cane fermentation) are biofuels They break down faster than diesel, reduce our dependency on crude oil and are carbon neutral . However, large areas of land are needed to grow the plants which may cause a loss of habitat for endangered animals . Hydrogen may be a fuel for the future because it only produces wate r when it burns so it is better for the environment. However, it is explosive and takes up more space than other fuels.

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Crude oil is a _______ It can be separated in the lab into groups of substances with similar ___________ using _________. _________ are the main hydrocarbon found in crude oil. They are called ____________ because they only contain _________ and _________. Alkanes contain only _______ bonds which means that they are _________ hydrocarbons. The general formula for alkanes is C n H ( 2n + 2). Here are the first four: CH 4 (methane) C 2 H 6 (ethane) C 3 H 8 (propane) C 4 H 10 (butane) The properties of hydrocarbons depend on their chain length. Longer chain hydrocarbons have a higher . They are also less _______ , more _______ and less _________ than shorter chains. __________________ is used by industry to separate crude oil. Crude oil is fed into the bottom of the __________ ____________ . The bottom is very ______ and the crude oil is ______________ The temperature of the column _______ as you move towards the top, so the gases ______ into liquids when they reach their _____________. _______ Ethane _______ Butane C1 Crude Oil and fuels _____________ produced from burning fuels may be linked to _______ _________ Fuels may contain impurities such as_______ , when burned it reacts with oxygen to form_______________. When burning fuels in cars, the high ___________ causes _________ to react with oxygen to form _____________ (NO). Together with sulphur dioxide, these cause __________ and ____________. Fuels may also burn incompletely to form ________ _______________ which causes ________ ______. ___________________can be fitted into car engines which reduce the amount of CO and NO. Sulfur can be removed from fuels prior to burning. Smaller fractions like propane are useful fuels. When they burn in plenty of air they release energy, and two waste products, ______________ and ______ This is an __________ reaction. E.g. Propane + Oxygen  __________ + _______ If there is not enough oxygen present when a fuel burns,__________ ____________ takes place which forms ___________________ __________ (made from vegetable oil) and _________ (made from sugar cane fermentation) are biofuels They break down faster than diesel, reduce our dependency on crude oil and are ___________ . However, large areas of land are needed to grow the plants which may cause a loss of habitat for ___________________ . __________ may be a fuel for the future because it only produces _________ when it burns so it is better for the environment. However, it is _____________ and takes up more space than other fuels.

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