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There are other distinct regions in the state including Ladakh, Gilgit, Baltistan and Skardu. India's neighbour, Pakistan, grabbed many of these regions about 50 years ago. Some parts of the state were forcibly taken over by China. The largest portion of the original state of Jammu & Kashmir remains as a state within India. Slide 3: Basic Facts Population: 10.1 million Area: 222,236 sq. km Capital city: Srinagar (summer), Jammu (winter Languages: Kashmiri, Dogri, Urdu, Hindi, Ladakhi, Purig, Tibetan and English Best Time to go: Kashmir - April to October, Jammu - October to March, Ladakh - May to October Regions: Leh, Kargil, Zanskar, Vaishno Devi, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg, Kishtawar, Katra, Basohli, Udhampur, Reasi, Rajouri, Poonch Adjoining Indian States: Himachal Pradesh International Borders: Pakistan, China Slide 4: War Between India and Pakistan Jammu & Kashmir in the year 1947 was an independent country for all practical purposes. The Maharaja who ruled the State had signed agreements with both Pakistan and India to remain neutral and not be part of either country. India honoured that agreement but Pakistan did not. Pakistani raiders and soldiers attacked the state in 1947 forcing the Maharaja to flee to India. The Maharaja asked India to help his people who were being killed and looted by the Pakistani raiders. He also agreed to make Jammu &; Kashmir part of India. The Indian ruler at that time was Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He accepted Jammu &; Kashmir's accession to India and agreed to rescue his people from the Pakistani attackers. Indian troops were flown into the Kashmir Valley and they managed to drive away most of the Pakistani raiders from the state. But a large area of the state remained under the control of Pakistani soldiers. These areas were difficult to reach because they were surrounded by tall mountain ranges. Also, India wanted to stop the fighting. The fighting ended with Pakistan retaining control of a large area of the state but India keeping a larger part. Slide 5: View Points of India & Pakistan India Accuses Pakistan of supporting Islamic insurgents in acts of terrorism on its side of the border whereas Pakistan maintains that it provides only moral and poltical autonomy for thir muslim cousins in Indian Kashmir. Pakistan has insisted that the problem could be resolved if the plebiscite that the United Nations originally recommended were held. India disagrees because, although the Indians State of Jammu and Kashmir (with its Hindu majority), including Ladakh (with its Buddhist majority), would likely vote to stay in India, the large Muslim population of Azad Kashmir would swing the vote in favour of union with Pakistan. Slide 6: How did the Fighting Come to a end The fighting ended in the beginning of 1949 because India did not want the war to drag on. India felt that other influential countries like the US and Britain would ask Pakistan to stop fighting and withdraw its soldiers from a State that had legally become part of India. India therefore went to the world body called the United Nations. India said that Pakistan had attacked a neutral State and that State had now become part of India. Therefore, Pakistan should withdraw its soldiers from the State. The United Nations agreed with the Indian demand and asked Pakistan to withdraw its forces from Jammu & Kashmir. It also told India to ask the people of Jammu & Kashmir whether they wanted to be part of India or part of Pakistan. This was because some people in the State wanted to join Pakistan while others wanted to stay with India. The Prime Minister of India agreed to ask the people what they wanted through a process known as a referendum or plebiscite. Pakistan did not agree and refused to vacate the areas of Jammu & Kashmir it had forcibly grabbed. Because of this a plebiscite could not be held. Powerful countries like the US and Britain did not force Pakistan to withdraw its troops from Kashmir. They simply termed the entire State as a ‘Disputed Territory.’. Slide 7: Disputed Territory This was done essentially because both India and Pakistan claimed the state of Jammu & Kashmir. The big powers, like the US and Britain, did not want to take sides and might have felt that it would be best if the problem of the state could be settled between India and Pakistan. India wants to settle the problems once and for all. But Pakistan will only accept a solution under which it can keep the Kashmir Valley to itself. India cannot allow this. Therefore, the so-called "dispute" continues to this day Slide 8: Legal Position of Kashmir & Jammu Legally, Jammu & Kashmir is an integral and inseparable part of India. The British had ruled India as one undivided country made up of many provinces and princely states. When they left, India was partitioned into two separate countries. The new country, as mentioned earlier, was called Pakistan. The British as well as the leaders of both India and Pakistan had agreed to one basic principle - every inch of land must go either to India or to Pakistan. In other words, people living in India before the partition of 1947, had only two options: they could either join Pakistan or they could join India. They could not remain independent. Jammu & Kashmir was actually an exception. The Maharaja of the State had wanted time to decide whether he should join Pakistan or join India. But the rulers of Pakistan did not want to give him the opportunity to decide and instead attacked his state, killing hundreds of people and causing extensive damage to property. The Pakistani action forced the Maharaja to join India Slide 9: Interesting Facts The dispute between India and Pakistan regarding the territory of state of Jammu and Kashmir is the oldest and longest surviving dispute on earth. India claims that Kashmir is an integral part of India. Pakistan claims that people of Kashmir are the ones that should determine their own future. Both countries refuse that region should be independent. The dispute has consumed millions of lives on both sides apart from trillions of dollars since 1947. The Kashmir dispute is now registered in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest militarized territorial dispute currently on the planet Slide 10: Issue The Main Issue arising in this topic is that it is a political issue. Politcal Issue: Conflicts in India and Jammu, Kashmir are each the result of centralized power operating in a predominantly heterogeneous society. Although tensions in the two states have important historical roots, they have been fueled by controversy over the policies of India's central government. Slide 11: Stakeholders The stakeholders of the Kashmiri dispute are: The people of Kashmir India Pakistan Slide 12: Perspective/Concerns Concern of the Kashmiri people: Have to deal with impacts of the fights Must make decisions on where to stay (be part india or pakistan) Concern of India: Wants to have Kashmir all to it’s self Wants the war to stop between pakistan, but blames them for the war Concern of Pakistan: Wants to take Kashmir away from India and have to it self Wants the destruction of India Doesn’t want to come to an agreement Slide 13: Possible Solutions Some possible solutions to solve this issue would be: People from all over the world can help by urging their leaders to tell Pakistan to accept the reality in Kashmir and negotiate a final settlement with India so that both countries can live in peace. The government of India and Pakistan also must be told that there can be no solution to the problem of Jammu & Kashmir without consulting all the peoples of the state, including those living outside the Kashmir Valley. Everybody can help by further urging Pakistani leaders to stop sending mercenaries to the Kashmir Valley and urging the Indian government to treat all Kashmiri fighters as freedom fighters and not terrorists. The Government of India must also be urged to recall most of its troops from the state and accord it the autonomy promised by the late Pundit Nehru Slide 14: Solution to have the greatest impact The government of India and Pakistan must be told that there can be no solution to the problem of Jammu & Kashmir without consulting all the peoples of the state, including those living outside the Kashmir Valley. Slide 15: Implementing the solution Possible steps to implement the solution: Consult the people of Jammu, Kashmir and get their opinions of where they want to be (part of Pakistan or India) Talk to the government of India, get them to get in contact with the people Talk to the government of Pakistan and get them to get in contact with the people of Jammi, Kashmir Pakistan and India must come to an agreement You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.