Forms of Government By Sagar

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Different Forms of Government Made By- Sagar Kumar XI-Sci.

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North Korea (Totalitarian)

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What is Totalitarianism? Totalitarianism  or  totalitarian state  is a term used by some political scientists to describe a political system in which the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.

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Features of Totalitarianism? An official ideology to which general adherence was demanded, the ideology intended to achieve a ‘perfect final stage of mankind’. A single mass party , hierarchically organised, closely interwoven with the state bureaucracy and typically led by one man. Monopolistic control of the armed forces. A similar monopoly of the means of effective mass communication . A system of terroristic police control. Central control and direction of the entire economy.

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Evolution The world has seen it in the raw ruthlessness of many despots of the past and Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Russia in modern times.      As totalitarianism is easily the most detested form of government and the most difficult to cast off, some thought should be given to how a totalitarianism evolves.      Basically the political life of a nation is divided into two types of groups.      First there is the GENERAL INTEREST GROUP. This is a broad, open group such as a political party or an association of teachers or a church. What distinguishes them as a GENERAL interest group is the fact that they stand for what they say they stand for and do what they say they do. They have beliefs, they scuffle about, but they are in the open and their influence is direct and visible.      Then there is another type of group. It can be called a SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP. It could also be called a “hidden” interest group. It is characterized by having some fixed idea but advertising something else. They are composed of zealots who work to the exclusion of all other interest as well as the exclusion of the well-being of others who are not “aligned” with the fixed idea of that group.

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Evolution  These “special interest groups” are commonly distrusted since they fail to announce their actual intention and sell their fixed idea behind a facade of often clever steps and propaganda.      The citizen who suddenly learns that Senator Belch was really a “front” for the oil interests or that Minister Bray was really trying to increase armament company profits is, as a good and unsuspicious citizen, usually dismayed when “all is revealed.”      Fixed ideas are usually buried in the mind and a person, as often as not, is unaware of what underlies his revulsions and prejudices. Similarly in the broad masses of the society a “special interest group” is obscured from view—one only sees its ploys and falsified “information” and is left to believe them, reject them or neglect them.      A suspicion that government is more and more guided by special interest groups and less and less determined by general interest groups such as political parties or advertised social intent has become a practical part of citizenship in modern times. When nations do not seem to be guided by good sense, the citizen begins to suspect “special interests” must underlie government policy. He is often so right that cynicism has displaced patriotism in most Western nations and we read that the day of idealism is dead.      As a matter of fact, only about 8 percent of the population is estimated to be “aligned” with special interest groups of one sort or another even in moments of national stress. Ninety-two percent of the population even in a country undergoing insurgency or revolt are not “aligned” at all. Other social and political estimates show even less “alignment.”      Thus, whether one is talking about a hidden or covert interest in specialized publics or oil or railroads, special interest groups form a very small minority of the population in peace or war. The vast majority of the people are caught up in the clever statements, maneuvers and “unavoidable decisions” of a very tiny number of people.

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Advantages The advantages is that there's less room for popular dissent (or none). That makes it easier for the government to do what needs to be done.... or whatever it is they want to do. And therein lies the disadvantage... power corrupts... absolute power corrupts absolutely. There is, apparently, no such thing as an honest government that exists for the good of the people. I suppose some politicians get into the business with altruistic motives, but those are soon set aside or quashed. Either the politician goes over to the "dark side," or he is rendered ineffective by the corrupt majority.  "Totalitarian" is a power structure. The structure of the government ideally would be a benevolent despot... one supreme ruler with unlimited power who's a "nice" guy. Unfortunately, as noted above, the "nice" guys don't get far in government.

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Leaders Kim Jong Un

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Pakistan (Plutocracy)

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Plutocracy Plutocracy   defines a society or a system ruled and dominated by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens. The first known use of the term is 1652. Unlike systems such as democracy ,  capitalism,  socialism or anarchism, plutocracy is not rooted in an established political philosophy. The concept of plutocracy may be advocated by the wealthy classes of a society in an indirect or surreptitious fashion, though the term itself is almost always used in a pejorative sense

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Features The wealthy rules You usually have to worship someone and follow communism laws. Economic Disparity Social Immobility Some people believe that a plutocracy is not a just system of government. They argue that it does not promote the welfare of the population as a whole. Critics claim that it tends to promote class disparity and systemic inequalities.

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Advantages Quick decision making. Unlike systems such as democracy, capitalism, socialism or anarchism, plutocracy is not rooted in an established political philosophy. The concept of plutocracy may be advocated by the wealthy classes of a society in an indirect or surreptitious fashion, though the term itself is almost always used in a pejorative sense.

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Leaders Asif Ali Zardari Mamnoon Hussain

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India ( Dem ocracy)

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Democracy A form of government by the people, for the people and of the people. Democracy  is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally—either directly or indirectly through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, religious, cultural, ethnic and racial equality, justice, liberty and fraternity.

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Features Elected representative : In democracy representatives elected by the people make laws and frame policies of the government. Elections are held to elect the representatives : All adult citizens have the right to participate (vote) in the elections. Elections should be free and fair and must be held at regular intervals. Citizens who have reached a certain age (in India, it is 25 years for elections . Civil liberties : An important characteristic of democracy is that it grants top civil liberties to the citizens. They enjoy freedoms of speech , expression, and information. Citizens have a right to form, join or quit an association. It includes the right to form political party.

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Features Rule of law : Another characteristic of democracy is that it ensures rule of law. Law is supreme and all the citizens are equal in the eyes of law. No one is above law. Independent judiciary : Independence of Judiciary is an essential characteristic of democracy. Judiciary must be free from any control of the executive or the legislature. Judges must be honest and should deliver justice impartially. Organised opposition party : Another important characteristic of democracy is the presence of organised opposition party or parties in the state . It prevents the government from being dictatorial.

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Evolution During the British rule, the freedom of Press was recognised. There was a rise of newspapers in Indian languages. Thus the British government made a significant contribution to the growth of democracy . It was all due to the great efforts of leaders like Mahatma Gandhi that india got independence. After obtaining Independence India was declared as a sovereign socialist country. The preamble to the Constitution declares India as a “democratic” country .

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Advantages People can choose their own candidate and leaders. Citizens are equal before law.  Citizens have equal right to the power . Peaceful Modifications in the Government Democracy can offer modifications in govt. The power of the general public of a country decides its ruling power.  No discrimination on the basis of religion, caste and sex.

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Leaders Mahatma Gandhi Jawaharlal Nehru Subhash Chandra Bose

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France ( Revolutionar y )

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Revolutionary Govt. When the existing government is overthrown by a completely new group. The new group can be very small, such as the military, or very large, as in a popular revolution. After a period of time, the country adopts one type of government.

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Evolution It all began from the French Revolution. It had great outcomes: Abolition of the French monarchy. Establishment of a secular and democratic republic that became increasingly authoritarian and militaristic. Radical social change based on liberalism and other Enlightenment   principles. Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. Armed conflicts with other European countries.

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Leaders N A P O L E A N B O N A R P A R T E

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Thank You

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