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An outline is a part of the writing process called “Pre-Writing.” It is a list that outlines all of the information that you would like to include in your paper. The list helps you to put all of your information in order before you begin writing. It is the best way to get your mind UNJUMBLED when writing any major paper! How does it do that? : How does it do that? An Outline Organizes The Major Parts Of Your Essay: Your Thesis Statement-The sentence that tells your reader your ultimate point and what they should expect. You Major Points-The facts that you are using to prove your main point. Your Supporting Details-The examples, facts, quotations, etc. that further explain and back up each major point. You should have several for each Major Point. Your Transitions-The statement or information you will use to transition form one major point to the next. This stops your paper from sounding jumpy or disorganized. Concluding Thoughts-Any thoughts that you would like to include at the close of your paper to wrap things up and tie it all together. NEVER INCLUDE NEW FACTS OR INFORMATION IN YOUR CONCLUSION! Why Write An Outline? : Why Write An Outline? It will help you organize all of the ideas running around your brain! It will allow you to find any gaps in your research or ideas early enough to fix them. It will make writing you essay less stressful because you will KNOW what you have to work with. Professors are often willing to look over an outline for you to make sure that you are on the right track! Do I Have To Use Roman Numerals? : Do I Have To Use Roman Numerals? No! You can organize your outline any way that you would like. Use Number or Letters Use signs or simple pictures (- * v ? ?) You can even do it on the computer and use the bullet function. NOTE: If you do your outline on the computer, you can use it as the basis for your essay. Just remove the bullets when you are ready and edit what you have already typed!! Where do I start? : Where do I start? Gather all of your research or notes on the topic that you are writing about. Review it all and decide what your research/information is telling you about your topic. Form a working thesis statement that describes the point that you want to make about your topic. Begin to select what information you would like to include in your essay based on what proves your point. Then what? : Then what? Start Writing Your Outline! How? : How? An Outline Organizes Your Information Into 3 major parts in Preparation For Your Paper: What goes in the intro. section? : What goes in the intro. section? The Same Information That Should Be In Your Essay’s Introductory Paragraph What about the Body section? : What about the Body section? The Body Section Outlines The Following Information On Each Of Your Major Points: And the conclusion section… : And the conclusion section… Your Conclusion Section Does The Following: NOTE: You do not have to rewrite the thesis or major points in your outline if you do not choose to, but they should be in your essay’s conclusion! Roxana Dalila Hurtado Abarca : TYPES OF ESSAYS Roxana Dalila Hurtado Abarca How Will My Final Outline Look? : How Will My Final Outline Look? Thesis Statement 1st major point 2nd major point 3rd major point (etc.) 1st major point Supporting details (3-5) Transition 2nd major point Supporting details (3-5) Transition 3rd major point Supporting details (3-5) Concluding Thoughts Your Final Outline Should Look Something Like This: Slide 15: Task 1:Look at the essay plans below for the three types of discursive essays, then say what features the plans have in common and how each plan differs from the others. Task 2:Look at the essay topics below, and say whether each topic asks for a for and against” essay, an opinion essay or an essay suggesting solutions to problems. Then, choose two of the topics and make a list of the points you would include in an essay on each topic. : “animals should be treated with the same respect as humans.” Do you agree with this view? “The generation gap is one which cannot be bridged.” Discuss. “Do you believe that equality for women means that women should also do such things as military service? “One language spoken worldwide would lead to better international relations.” Discuss. Genetic engineering poses a number of worrying problems, both moral and practical. Discuss some of these problems and suggest what could be done to overcome them. “celebrities should be allowed to keep their private lives private, without the invasion of the media.” Discuss. “Fear and ignorance are the root causes of racial hatred.” Discuss this statement and offer some possible solutions to the problem of racial prejudice. “The motion picture industry is threatening to destroy culture and tradition.” Do you agree? “Too much money is spent on sport when it could be used to help the poor.” What are your views on this issue? What are the advantages and disadvantages of our ever-increasing use of computer technology? Task 2:Look at the essay topics below, and say whether each topic asks for a for and against” essay, an opinion essay or an essay suggesting solutions to problems. Then, choose two of the topics and make a list of the points you would include in an essay on each topic. Task 2 : ` Task 2 Talking about grammar : Talking about grammar Task 3Match the following beginnings and endings. Then, say which technique has been used in each. : Task 3Match the following beginnings and endings. Then, say which technique has been used in each. 1.________ 2.________ 3.-_______ Task 4 Look at the quotations and the essay subjects below. Which quotation would be most relevant to each of the topics, and which type of essay does each topic require? : Task 4 Look at the quotations and the essay subjects below. Which quotation would be most relevant to each of the topics, and which type of essay does each topic require? QUOTATIONS Statements : Too much emphasis is placed en educational qualifications.” What are your views? Teenagers have an important contribution to make to society.” Discuss. It is everyone’s responsibility to protect the environment.” Discuss. People today take material comfort for granted.” Do you agree? As technology advances, humans are becoming redundant.” Discuss the preblem and suggest what might be done to remedy the situation. Statements _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ When writing a discursive essay, you should: : use formal impersonal style use topic sentences to introduce the subject of each paragraph write well-developed paragraphs, giving reasons/examples use generalisations (e.g.In most countries education ...) use sequencing (ag. First/Iy, Secondlly, etc) Use linking words/phrases (e.g. however, although, etc) When writing a discursive essay, you should: For & Against Essays : For & Against Essays Definition : Definition A “for & against” essay is a formal piece of writing in which a topic is considered from opposing points of view. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them objectively and in equal detail Slide 25: A good essay of this type should consist of: a) An introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the topic to be discussed, without giving your opinion; b) A main body in which the points for & against along with your justifications, examples or reasons are presented in separate paragraphs; and c) A closing paragraph in which you state your opinion or give a balanced consideration of the topic. Points to consider : Points to consider Before you start writing your essay you should make a list of the points for & against. Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarizes the topic of the paragraph. e.g. In addition, many people feel reading is a relaxing and worthwhile activity. Do not use informal style (e.g. short forms, colloquial language, etc.) or strong language to express your opinion (e.g. I know …, etc.). Express your opinion in a non-emotional way (e.g. It seems that, I therefore feel …, etc.). Slide 27: Well-known quotations relevant to the topic you are writing about will make your composition more interesting. For example, if you are writing an essay on education, a quotation you may include is: “Education is a progressive discovery of your own ignorance.” (Will Durant) Note: Although these are balanced arguments, if you feel that either the for or against side is stronger and should be supported, this side should be presented in paragraphs 4 & 5, thus leading the reader to your conclusion. Sample essay : “Censorship is necessary in modern society”. Discuss. Censorship is an issue which frequently generates a great deal of heated debate, with supporters maintaining that it is vital in order to protect society, whilst opponents claim that it is an unjustifiable restriction of public access to information. Firstly, all countries have secrets which must be safeguarded for reasons of national security. For instance, if an enemy country were to acquire such highly sensitive information, the effects could be catastrophic. Consequently, governments have to have the power to restrict access to information concerning areas such as the armed forces or particular aspects of foreign policy. Secondly, it is often argued that censorship is necessary to prevent the broadcast and publication of obscene material which is considered offensive or harmful to public morals. Many people feel that, without censorship the public would be constantly subjected to material that the majority would find offensive. For this reason, the government has a duty to impose certain restrictions on the mass media by censoring films and texts which contain explicit scenes of sex, violence or foul language. In contrast, opponents of censorship point out that when it is abused by governments, censorship becomes an instrument used to misinform society and maintain power. In order to control the flow of information which riches the public, repressive regimes try to put constraints on the media, thus denying citizens the right to information owing to the fact that governments believe it may lead them to seek greater freedom. Furthermore, it is generally felt that mature adults are able to make informed choices about what they watch, read and listen to and should, therefore, be permitted to make their own decisions. For example, some comedians make use of offensive language taboo subjects in their performances. Critics of censorship argue that the only people who will watch or listen to such material are adults who have made a conscious decision to do so. Thus, it is claimed, it is unjust to censor material like this since it is not forced upon people who may subsequently be offended by it. All things considered, it can be concluded that a certain degree of censorship is always necessary. The best course of action would be to attempt to achieve a balance between the requirements of the country and the public on the one hand, and individuals’ rights on the other. Sample essay Questions and comments : firstname.lastname@example.org Tasks are due before Friday May 8th . Questions and comments You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.