present perfect

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Present Perfect : 

Present Perfect [has/have + past participle] 1.unspecified time before now 2.duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

USE 1: Unspecified Time Before Nowto say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as yesterday, last week, etc. We CAN use unspecific time expressions like ever, many times, etc. : 

USE 1: Unspecified Time Before Nowto say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as yesterday, last week, etc. We CAN use unspecific time expressions like ever, many times, etc.

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Examples: I have seen that movie twenty times. I think I have met him once before. There have been many earthquakes in California. People have traveled to the Moon. People have not traveled to Mars. A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

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How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect? “Unspecified time" means: 1.Experience 2.Change over time 3. Accomplishments 4.An uncompleted action you are expecting 5.Actions that has just finished 6.Multiple actions at different times

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1. Experience You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. Examples: I have been to France. I have been to France three times. I have never been to France.

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2 .Change Over Time We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time. Examples: You have grown since the last time I saw you. The government has become more interested in arts education My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

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3 Accomplishments We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time. Examples: Man has walked on the Moon. Our son has learned how to read.

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4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. We are still waiting for the action to happen. Use adverbs like "ever", "never", "yet", "already" Example: Bill has still not arrived yet. The rain hasn't stopped.

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5.Actions that has just finished (using just) Example: My grandmother has just passed her driving license exam. (Why not?)

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6. Multiple actions at different times use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. The process is not complete and more actions are possible. Examples: The army has attacked that city five times. I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.

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Use 2: Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs) With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.

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Examples: I have had a cold for two weeks. She has been in England for six months. Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl. Non-Continuous Verbs These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing Example: to be, to want, to own, to belong, to like, to love Mixed Verbs These verbs have more than one meaning Example: to feel, to have, to hear, to look

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(Bridget's party) Bridget is going to have a birthday party at home.Put the words in order to know what she has or hasn't done before her friends arrive I /house/ cleaned/ the/ already/ have 2. prepared/ some/ I / already/salad/ have 3.pasta/ haven’t/ cooked/ the /I / yet 4. everybody/ phoned/ have/ I / already .

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5. shower/ yet/ I / had/ haven’t/ a 6.have/ bought /wine /already/ some /I 7.have /been /the/ to /hairdresser’s /already /I 8.haven’t /yet/ bought /bread/ I/ any 9.yet /haven’t /the /decided /about /I /clothes 10.table /haven’t /I /yet/ the/ set

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