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Premium member Presentation Transcript Chapter 1 : Chapter 1 The Science of Life Section 1-1 Themes of Biology : Section 1-1 Themes of Biology At the end of this section you will be able to: List six unifying themes of biology Explain how organisms get the energy they need to survive Describe the main difference between the structure of a living thing and that of a nonliving thing Introduction to the Chapter : Introduction to the Chapter Name all the species of organisms you know Estimation and actual number “Biology”, other “ologies”/endings to words and how to know what words mean in science The Study of Life : The Study of Life The Six Unifying Themes in Biology 1. Cell Structure and Function Unicellular Multicellular Differentiation 2. Stability and Homeostasis Homeostasis The Study of Life : The Study of Life The Six Unifying Themes in Biology 3. Reproduction and Inheritance Sexual and Asexual Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Gene 4. Evolution Natural Selection The Study of Life : The Study of Life The Six Unifying Themes in Biology 5. Interdependence of Organisms Ecology Ecosystems 6. Matter, Energy and Organization Photosynthesis Autotrophs Heterotrophs Section 1-2 The World of Biology : Section 1-2 The World of Biology At the end of this section you will be able to: List six characteristics of life Describe how a living thing is organized Explain why all living things on Earth are not yet understood Characteristics of Life : Characteristics of Life 1. Cells Multicellular organisms Different functions Unicellular organisms 2. Organization Groups of cells are organized by their function Figure 1-8 Characteristics of Life : Characteristics of Life 3. Energy Use Metabolism 4. Homeostasis Water intake/release 98.6o Figure 1-9 Characteristics of Life : Characteristics of Life 5. Growth Cell Division Development Human body has between 30 and 50 trillion cells 6. Reproduction Survival of individual organism does not require reproduction Survival of a species does require reproduction Section 1-3 Scientific Methods : Section 1-3 Scientific Methods At the end of this section you will be able to: Define and give examples of each step in the scientific method Explain the relationship between hypothesizing, predicting and experimenting Explain why good communication is so important in science Describe the methods that scientists use in their work Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods 1st Step: Observing Seeing what is happening 1976 disease outbreak in Africa 2nd Step: Asking a Question All scientific investigations begin with questions How is the disease transmitted What caused the disease to appear Do all victims die Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods 3rd Step: Collecting Data Observing Listening to a bird call in the wild Looking at tissue samples under a microscope Measuring Dimensions, number in a group, duration of an event (quantitative data) Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods 3rd Step: Collecting Data (cont.) Sampling A small part to represent the whole (the more random and the larger the better) Organizing Data Logical order (chart, graph, table, map) Figure 1-14 Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods 4th Step: Hypothesizing A statement to explain the observations made that can be tested Forming a hypothesis Evidence collected must support or not support a hypothesis Although a hypothesis may be supported by evidence, it can never be proven true beyond all doubt. Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods 4th Step: Hypothesizing (cont.) Predicting A statement made in advance that states the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis (if-then statements) IF the virus were the true disease-causing agent, THEN introducing the virus into healthy tissue would cause cell death like that found in victims of the disease Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods 5th Step: Experimenting Conducting a Controlled Experiment Control Group verses Experimental Group Identical except for the independent variable (pg. 18) Analyzing Data The process of determining whether data are reliable and whether they support or do not support the hypothesis Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods 6th Step: Drawing Conclusions Modeling An explanation supported by data Inferring (making inferences) A conclusion made on the basis of facts rather than on direct observations (smoke-fire) Forming a Theory A broad comprehensive statement of what is THOUGHT to be true Scientific Methods : Scientific Methods Implementing Scientific Methods Problem Solving A combination of methods may be used to solve differing problems Communicating SHARE your work (methods, findings, etc.) Section 1-4 : Section 1-4 Microscopy and Measurement Objectives Compare light microscopes with electron microscopes in terms of magnification and resolution Explain the advantage of the Systeme International d’Unites Microscopy and Measurement : Microscopy and Measurement Microscopes An instrument that produces an enlarged image of an object Magnification The increase of an object’s apparent size Resolution The power to show details clearly Microscopy and Measurement : Microscopy and Measurement Compound Light Microscopes (LM) Stage- Objective Lens- Ocular Lens- Power of Magnification objective X ocular 4 X 10 = ____ Microscopy and Measurement : Microscopy and Measurement Electron Microscopes A beam of electrons produces an enlarged image of the specimen Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Magnify up to 200,000 times Only non-living organisms Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Magnify up to 100,000 times Only non-living organisms Microscopy and Measurement : Microscopy and Measurement Measurement (SI) Base Units There are seven fundamental base units in SI that describe length, mass, time, and other quantities Multiples of a base unit are designated by prefixes Example- Base unit for length is the meter (m). One kilometer (km) is equal to 1,000 meters (m) Microscopy and Measurement : Microscopy and Measurement SI Base Units Microscopy and Measurement : Microscopy and Measurement Derived SI units used in Biology You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.