Slide 1: Considering how we best learn to know how we best teach ~ 1 How do our senses inform us ? : How do our senses inform us ? 2 The Impact of Sight on Learning : The Impact of Sight on Learning Between 80 – 90% of all information absorbed by our brains is visual! 3 The brain is hard-wired to pay attention to : The brain is hard-wired to pay attention to Color, Contrast, Tilt, Curvature and Line 4 The brain responds immediately to symbols. : The brain responds immediately to symbols. 5 Learners learn best through concrete, vivid images . : Learners learn best through concrete, vivid images . 6 Lighting - Artificial or Sunlight - : Lighting - Artificial or Sunlight - 7 What influences vision influences learning : What influences vision influences learning 8 Cognitive Benefits of Healthy, Protein-Rich Food, Vitamins and Nutrients : Cognitive Benefits of Healthy, Protein-Rich Food, Vitamins and Nutrients 9 The Importance of Hydration : The Importance of Hydration 10 Physical Aspects of Classroom : Physical Aspects of Classroom 11 Brain-Based education is the engagement of strategies based on principles derived from an understanding of the brain. (E.S.P.) : Brain-Based education is the engagement of strategies based on principles derived from an understanding of the brain. (E.S.P.) 12 Slide 13: It is active or interactive engagement.
The strategies have a purpose.
The principles are derived from neuroscience. 13 Slide 14: Brain-based education is based on the way the brain is designed to learn and develop
not through rigid demands of a school’s inflexible schedule. 14 Slide 15: The old model was operant conditioning (rewards and punishment). 15 Slide 16: Behaviorists see operant conditioning as students being the rats with little or no voice. 16 Slide 17: Brain-based Naturalists believe that you can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink.
(Or, you can lead a student to knowledge but you can’t make her think!)
How do we get that horse to be thirsty? 17 Slide 18: The Brain-Based approach :
Discover and overcome learners’ barriers,
and strengthen their built–in motivators
= desired behavior emerges naturally. 18 Slide 19: Different types of learning are processed through different pathways
Words, text and pictures arrive through the sense or are generated internally 19 Slide 20: Input is first processed through the thalamus
Then routed to
Then it jump starts the sympathetic nervous system 20 Slide 21: Apoptosis: cell death – it happens all the time
We grow new cells in the hippocampus 21 Slide 22: Brain anatomy:
Axons 22 Slide 23: More brain anatomy:
Cerebrum 23 Slide 24: 24 Slide 25: 25 Stress and Threat – the body’s reaction to a perception, not necessarily a reality! : Stress and Threat – the body’s reaction to a perception, not necessarily a reality! 26 Good Stress Occurs in Short Bursts : Good Stress Occurs in Short Bursts When we feel we can rise to the occasion of a challenge 27 The Negative or Bad Form of Stress is Distress - We do not feel capable of solving the problem. : The Negative or Bad Form of Stress is Distress - We do not feel capable of solving the problem. 28 When we perceive a threat, the brain: : When we perceive a threat, the brain: cannot correctly interpret clues from the environment
reverts to habitual behavior
loses some of its ability to store and access information
becomes automatic and limited in its responses
loses some of its ability to perceive relationships and patterns
loses long-term memory capacity
tends to overreact to stimuli 29 What Chronic Stress Does to Students: : What Chronic Stress Does to Students: - makes them more susceptible to illness
- lower test scores because of absenteeism
- lowered serotonin levels
- increased violent and aggressive behavior
- atrophy of 8-24% in hippocampus in PTSD victims
- -impaired ability to sort out what is important and what is not. 30 If the brain is in survival mode, it cannot effectively remember basic facts. : If the brain is in survival mode, it cannot effectively remember basic facts. If a child has only know poverty, it is difficult to imagine an alternative
- A child who is in survival mode because a parent is a violent alcoholic, will not be drawn to complete homework. 31 The bottom line: : The bottom line: -The more a child is stressed at home, the more necessary an enriched and supportive school environment is.
-Avoid calling on learners unless they volunteer.
- Avoid overt comparisons, threats, and embarrassments of students.
- Provide frequent feedback and remedial support.
- Acknowledge even slight progress. 32 Biological Differences in Learning : Biological Differences in Learning - Males have better distance and depth perception.
- Males see better in daylight; women see better at night.
- Females are better at recognizing faces and remembering names.
- Women are able to store more random and irrelevant visual information than men; men are better able to focus on one thing.
- Females react faster to pain but can withstand it over a longer duration than men.
-Infant males play more with objects; infant females play more with playmates.
-Women have a stronger sense of smell and are more responsive to fragrance and odors. 33 The bottom line: : The bottom line: Become familiar with gender differences.
Be aware of the normal lag time for skills that show up differently for girls and boys (boys may learn language later; girls may learn spatial or physical tasks later).
Respect and appreciate each learner’s uniqueness.
Refrain from labeling learners “slow” or “hyperactive.” 34 The brain benefits from physical activity. : The brain benefits from physical activity. It enhances circulation so that individual neurons get more oxygen.
It may spur the production of nerve growth factor, and this enhances brain function.
Gross motor repetitive movements stimulate production of dopamine, a mood-enhancing neurotransmitter.
Sufficient exercise enhances the production of new cells in the brain.
In spite of this, only 36% of K-12 students participate in a daily physical education program!
Get students moving around! 35 Slide 36: Assessment With the Brain in Mind 36 Common Mistakes in Assessment : Common Mistakes in Assessment 1. Pushing for Higher Standards Without the Necessary Resources.
2. Lockstep Testing Ignores Brain Development
3. Short-Term Testing Ignores How the Brain Learns
4. Most Testing Ignores Real-World Application 37 What is Authentic Assessment? : What is Authentic Assessment? Five Areas of Authentic Assessment:
1. Content (what learners know)
2. Emotion (how they feel about it)
3. Context (how they relate it to the world)
4. Processing (how learners manipulate data)
5. Embodiment (how deep the learning goes; how learners apply it. 38 Slide 39: Comparing one student to another is one of the most irrelevant and damaging assessment strategies ever devised. 39 How much of old-style testing should be part of overall assessment? : How much of old-style testing should be part of overall assessment? According to Eric Jenson: less than half!
Authentic assessment moves beyond quantity of assessment to quality of assessment.
It is part science, part art. 40 What does authentic assessment look like? : What does authentic assessment look like? Some Examples:
-An Internet Newspaper
which contains :
- multiple points of view
- expressions of personal interest 41 Wall-sized Mural : Wall-sized Mural - Choose a theme
-Use large sheet of butcher paper
Let everyone participate
- Hang in a conspicuous place 42 Student –generated Tests or Quizzes : Student –generated Tests or Quizzes -Establish basic criteria
-Have students write questions 43 Multimedia Creation : Multimedia Creation -Video
Storytelling 44 Demonstrations and Student teachers : Demonstrations and Student teachers -Storyboards
-Model Making (for Science Projects)
-Artwork/Drawing 45 Slide 46: -Sculpture
-Commercials, Short Films
-Case Study Problems
-Game Design 46 Slide 47: -Debates
-Class Yearbook 47 Slide 48: Time Lines 48 Mind Mapping : Mind Mapping 49 Multiiple Types of Feedback work best : Multiiple Types of Feedback work best more often and immediately after a mistake
more task oriented, not person oriented
the more specific, the better
the more emotionally weighted, the better (within reason)
The brain hunts for feedback to ensure its survival, growth and progress. 50 Brain-Friendly Feedback : Brain-Friendly Feedback Increase feedback from yourself and other sources (including other students).
Encourage group work, long term projects, brainstorming, debates, and games.
Encourage learners to use self-assessment techniques (rubrics, study groups, self-quizzes).
Replace extrinsic rewards with acknowledgment of the intrinsic rewards of success. 51 Slide 52: Keep all student work in a portfolio, and refer to their progress often.
Compare learners only to themselves, not to other learners.
Discuss your assessment philosophy and approach and why it works. 52