Cellular Respiration Intro Weebly

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What does energy look like in your cells? In cells, energy is stored in the form of ATP!


What is a calorie ? The energy obtained from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is measured in units of heat called … calories . Energy is measured in Calories


How do our bodies take food and make it into energy?


Cellular Respiration! Cellular respiration is a chemical process in which glucose molecules are broken down to release energy (ATP) for cellular functions


What types of organisms undergo cellular respiration? Cellular respiration occurs in ALL living cells!


What happens to the food we eat? 1. We break our food down into small molecules 2. We use the energy stored in the bonds in our food to make ATP 3. A small amount of the food becomes waste


What are some of the things that our body does that requires energy? Physical Activities Running Playing sports Pumping our hearts Cellular Activities Sending messages to our brain Transporting molecules in and out of our cells


Like photosynthesis, cellular respiration has a specific chemical reaction that happens every time . O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6  CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy (ATP) We breathe in oxygen and get glucose from our food We breathe out carbon dioxide +  (reactants) (products)


Cellular Respiration: (2 kinds—Aerobic and Anaerobic) Cellular respiration is the process by which the energy of glucose is released in the cell to be used for life processes ( movement, breathing, blood circulation , etc…)


Anaerobic Respiration Does NOT need oxygen! Happens in the cytoplasm of a cell


Aerobic Respiration Requires oxygen Happens in the mitochondria of a cell


Cellular Respiration Overview Glucose Glycolysis Electron Transport Chain 2 Krebs Cycle Mitochondria In Cytoplasm 2 32-34 Electrons carried in NADH Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2


Summary: 3 steps: 1 st glycolysis 2 nd Krebs cycle 3 rd Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

Key players :

Key players Glucose : source of fuel NAD + /FAD : electron carriers Enzymes : mediate entire process Mitochondria : site of aerobic respiration ATP : principal end product Protons/Electrons : sources of potential energy Oxygen : final electron acceptor


CELLULAR RESPIRATION IS A SERIES OF REDOX REACTIONS In Cellular Respiration: Oxidation of C in glucose tied to reduction of other molecules (ex:NAD + )

Types of reactions:

Types of reactions An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction is a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons . An oxidation-reduction reaction is any chemical reaction in which a molecule, atom, or ion changes by gaining or losing an electron. Redox reactions  are vital to some of the basic functions of life, including   photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

Redox Reactions.:

Redox Reactions. Oxidation Reduction


GCSE Oxidation : Gain of oxygen Loss of electrons Reduction : Loss of oxygen Gain of electrons Increase in oxidation number Decrease in oxidation number


oxidation = when a molecule loses electrons reduction = when a molecule gains electrons some molecules are used as an electron shuttle : moving electrons from one part of the process to another NAD + and FAD carry electrons or hydrogens (NADH and FADH 2 )

NAD+: an electron carrier:

NAD+: an electron carrier In order for electrons to be passed from one compound to another, an electron carrier is needed NAD+ is reduced to NADH when picking up electrons It is oxidized back to NAD+ when losing them


O xidation and reduction . OXIDATION HOW REDUCTION Loss of electrons NAD+ and FAD pick up oxygen, lose hydrogens , and gain e- from glucose and drop them off at the ETC where they add a little energy to move H+ ions which all are picked up by oxygen Gain of electrons Gain of oxygen Loss of oxygen Loss of hydrogen Gain of hydrogen Results in many C-O bonds Results in many C-H bonds Results in a compound with lower potential energy Results in a compound with higher potential energy

Redox Reactions :

Redox Reactions OIL RIG O xidation I s L oss of e- and addition of oxygen R eduction I s G ain of e- and loss of oxygen Redox reactions produce energy change Reduction absorbs energy ( endergonic) Oxidation releases energy (exergonic)

Why many REDOX Reactions?:

KaBoOM !! Why many REDOX Reactions? Combustion of glucose  many reactions (e nzymes) The alternative in one simple reaction… D’oh !


Glycolysis Is there is oxygen available to the cell? YES! Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration NO!


Anaerobic Respiration: occurs when no oxygen is available to the cell (2 kinds: Alcoholic and Lactic Acid) Also called fermentation Much less ATP produced than in aerobic respiration


Alcoholic fermentation—occurs in bacteria and yeast Process used in the baking and brewing industry—yeast produces CO 2 gas during fermentation to make dough rise and give bread its holes glucose ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide + 2 ATP


Lactic acid fermentation—occurs in muscle cells Lactic acid is produced in the muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues —causes burning sensation in muscles glucose lactic acid + carbon dioxide + 2 ATP


The steps in cellular respiration… Step 1: Glycolysis


glycolysis Anaerobic Respiration Alcoholic fermentation Bacteria, Yeast 2 ATP Lactic acid fermentation Muscle cells 2 ATP Aerobic Respiration 36 ATP ETC Mitochondria Krebs Cycle Cytoplasm First step in anaerobic respiration is also glycolysis Diagram C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose


Glycolysis glucose ____ ___ Glycolysis is an anaerobic respiration process… Therefore, glycolysis happens in the ___________ and does NOT require ________. cytoplasm oxygen to break apart cytoplasm


Glycolysis (breaking apart glucose) 1. Food (glucose) enters the cytoplasm of the cell. cytoplasm


Glycolysis (breaking apart glucose) 2. Enzymes break glucose into 2 molecules. This part uses 2 ATP molecules!! + GLUCOSE 2 PYRUVIC ACIDS 2 ATP


Glycolysis (breaking apart glucose) 3. When the bonds in glucose break, energy is released and stored in 4 ATP!!


Glycolysis makes 4 ATP and uses 2 ATP *** The net gain of glycolysis is 2 ATP ***


The products of glycolysis are… Pyruvate 2 ATP’s


After finishing glycolysis the cell has only taken out 10% of one glucose molecule! Therefore, the process must continue!!!


The steps in cellular respiration… Step 1: Glycolysis The next step depends on what the conditions of the cell are. Step 2: ????????????

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