Atoms

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Learning Target:

Learning Target Identify the three sub-atomic particles found in atoms

The Building Blocks of Matter: :

The Building Blocks of Matter: + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - +

Matter is :

Matter is Anything that has mass (weight). Anything that takes up space ( volume )

Matter :

Matter Anything that has mass (weight) and takes up space ( volume ) Examples: A brick has mass and takes up space A desk has mass and takes up space The above examples are considered matter because they have mass and Volume .

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Air has mass and takes up space

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Smallest possible unit into which matter can be divided, while still maintaining its properties. Made up of: protons neutrons electrons The solar system is commonly used as an analogy to describe the structure of an atom For example, what is the smallest possible unit into which a long essay can be divided and still have some meaning? + - + + + - - - - +

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The Solar System

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An Atom

Atoms are so small that…:

Atoms are so small that… it would take a stack of about 50,000 atoms to equal the thickness of a single sheet of aluminum foil from your kitchen. a human hair is about 1 million carbon atoms wide. a typical human cell contains roughly 1 trillion atoms. a speck of dust might contain 3x10 12 (3 trillion) atoms. it would take you around 500 years to count the number of atoms in a grain of salt. www.deckersfoods.com 1 trillion atoms  . Is made of approximately 3 trillion atoms Just one of these grains

Three parts of an Atom: Protons (+):

Three parts of an Atom: Protons (+) Positively charged particles Help make the nucleus of the atom Help identify the atom (could be considered an atom’s DNA) Equal to the atomic number of the atom Equal to the number of electrons + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - +

Three parts of an Atom: Neutrons:

Three parts of an Atom: Neutrons Neutral particles; have no electric charge Help make up the nucleus of the atom “Glue” that keeps protons together. + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - +

Three parts of an Atom: Electrons (-):

Three parts of an Atom: Electrons (-) Negatively charged particles Move so rapidly around the nucleus that they create an electron cloud Much smaller than protons and neutrons Equal to the number of protons Involved in the formation of chemical bonds - + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - +

Electrons (-):

Electrons (-) Electrons create electric currents. - + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - +

The Atom’s “Center” :

The Atom’s “Center” Protons and neutrons are grouped together to form the “center” or NUCLEUS of an atom. - + + + Notice that the electrons are not apart of the nucleus - -

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Same charges repel Opposites charges attract - + + + - - Notice how the particles with the same charge move apart and different charges move together . Why are neutrons not pictured above? Atoms are like magnets

Ion:

Symbol = O 2+ Ion Charged particle that typically results from a loss or gain of electrons + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - + - Now that this atom of oxygen just gained an electron, it is no longer neutral or an atom. It is now considered an ion (anion). This ion has more electrons (9) than protons (8). + - = 8 = 8 = 8 9 6 Symbol = O 1- Now that three electrons were lost, the number of electrons (6) and protons (8) is still unbalanced; therefore, it is still an ion, but now it is specifically referred to as a cation. Currently, this atom of oxygen is neutral because it has an equal number of electrons (8) and protons (8). Symbol = O

Isotopes:

Isotopes Atoms that have the same number of protons, but have different numbers of neutrons Examples + - + - + - Hydrogen (Protium) Hydrogen (Deuterium) Hydrogen (Tritium) Notice that each of these atoms have one proton; therefore they are all types of hydrogen. They just have a different mass number (# of neutrons).

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