12-1 DNA Structure

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Slide1:

Learning Target: Describe the shape and job of DNA . Describe the parts of a Nucleotide Define Base-Pair and Chargaff’s Rule .

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DNA The Blueprint of life

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The shape of DNA is called a DOUBLE HELIX.

And you can see it almost anywhere…:

And you can see it almost anywhere… Staircases

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Art

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What EXACTLY is DNA?

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are nucleic acids, A macromolecule that stores and carries genetic information DNA & RNA

DNA:

DNA is the blueprint of life . DNA contains the blueprint for making proteins in a cell.

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The DNA in cells can hold lots of information and are very long. Each cell has about 6 feet of DNA.

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DNA _______ _________ __________ in cells Stores genetic information

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NUCLEOTIDES DNA is built from smaller parts Called… ___________ DNA is a NUCLEIC ACID

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This is NUCLEOTIDE

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A NUCLEOTIDE is made of three parts phosphate Nitrogen Base Sugar

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15 Our genes are on our chromosomes. Chromosomes are made up of a chemical called DNA.

The DNA Double Helix has two strands twisted together. :

The DNA Double Helix has two strands twisted together. Like a zipper…

Strand of DNA:

Strand of DNA One strand of DNA is a polymer of nucleotides. One strand of DNA has many millions of nucleotides. nucleotide

One Strand of DNA:

One Strand of DNA The backbone of the molecule is alternating phosphates and deoxyribose sugar The teeth are nitrogenous bases . phosphate deoxyribose bases

1. Nitrogenous bases:

19 1. N itrogenous bases DNA has four different bases: Thymine T Cytosine C Adenine A Guanine G

The teeth of the zipper…:

The teeth of the zipper… Guanine G Adenine A Cytosine C Thymine T

The Bases are either a…:

The Bases are either a… PYRIMIDINE: single ring bases . PURINE: double ring bases. C C C C N N O N C C C C N N N N N C

Thymine and Cytosine are pyrimidines:

Thymine and Cytosine are pyrimidines Thymine and cytosine each have one ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. C C C C N N O N cytosine C C C C N N O O thymine C

Adenine and Guanine are purines:

23 Adenine and Guanine are purines Adenine and guanine each have two rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms. C C C C N N N Adenine N N C C C C C N N O N Guanine N N C

Two Stranded DNA:

24 Two Stranded DNA Remember, DNA has two strands that fit together something like a zipper. The teeth are the nitrogenous bases but why do they stick together?

Two Stranded DNA:

Two Stranded DNA DNA has two strands that fit together like a zipper. The teeth are the nitrogenous bases but why do they stick together?

The Two sides of DNA are held together with Hydrogen bonds:

26 The Two sides of DNA are held together with Hydrogen bonds P P P O O O 1 2 3 4 5 5 3 3 5 P P P O O O 1 2 3 4 5 5 3 5 3 G C T A

Hydrogen Bonds:

C C C C N N O N C C C C N N O N N N C Hydrogen Bonds The bases attract each other because of HYDROGEN BONDS. Hydrogen bonds are weak but there are millions and millions of them in a single molecule of DNA. The bonds between cytosine and guanine are shown here with dotted lines

Hydrogen Bonds, cont.:

28 Hydrogen Bonds, cont. When making hydrogen bonds, cytosine always pairs up with guanine Adenine always pairs up with thymine Adenine is bonded to thymine here C C C C N N N N N C C C C C N N O O C

Chargaff’s Rule:

Chargaff’s Rule Adenine must pair with Thymine Guanine must pair with Cytosine Their amounts in a given DNA molecule will be about the same . G C T A

DNA:

30 DNA P P P O O O 1 2 3 4 5 5 3 3 5 P P P O O O 1 2 3 4 5 5 3 5 3 G C T A

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A  BASE PAIR  is one of the  pairs : A-T or C-G The nucleotides in a  base pair  are complementary which means their shape allows them to bond together with hydrogen bonds.

Chargraff’s Rule::

Chargraff’s Rule: Equal amounts of ADENINE and THYMINE always join together A T Equal Amounts of CYTOSINE and GUANINE always join together C G

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33

Question::

Question: If there is 30% Adenine , how much Cytosine is present?

Answer::

Answer : There would be 20% Cytosine Adenine (30%) = Thymine (30%) Guanine (20%) = Cytosine (20%) Therefore, 60% A-T and 40% C-G

2 KINDS of NUCLEIC ACIDS:

2 KINDS of NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA= __________________ Deoxyribonucleic acid Image from: http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/picts/dna.jpg ______________ STRANDED SUBUNITS: A, T, G, C (No U) DOUBLE

2 KINDS of NUCLEIC ACIDS:

2 KINDS of NUCLEIC ACIDS RNA= ________________ Ribonucleic acid _________STRANDED Subunits: A, U, G, C (NO T) Image from: http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/biology/01.TU.03/illustrations/01.IL.09.gif SINGLE

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Image by: Riedell NUCLEOTIDES 2 SUGARS can be used: ____________ (_____) ________ (____) DEOXYRIBOSE DNA RIBOSE RNA Sugars: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/fig5x27b.jpg Arrow: http://www.gifanimations.com/action/ImageDisplay/1/2/11/next

5 NITROGEN BASES:

5 NITROGEN BASES _____________ = A _____________ = G _____________ = C _____________ = T (only in DNA) _____________ = U (only in RNA) ADENINE GUANINE CYTOSINE THYMINE URACIL

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These Nitrogen bases: _____________ NO __________ Image by: Riedell MAKING _____ USES: uracil DEOXYRIBOSE DNA A, T, C, or G SUGAR = _______________ Sugars: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/fig5x27b.jpg

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SUGAR = __________ These Nitrogen bases _____________ NO __________ Image by: Riedell Making _____ uses” thymine RIBOSE RNA A, U, C, or G Sugars: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/fig5x27b.jpg

DNA molecule forms a HELIX or “twisted ladder”:

DNA molecule forms a HELIX or “twisted ladder” __________ bonds _________ with _________ bonds __________ with Image from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif ADENINE THYMINE CYTOSINE GUANINE

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