DNA Vocabulary

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What is a Gene?

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are nucleic acids, A macromolecule that stores and carries genetic information DNA & RNA

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DNA The Blueprint of life

DNA molecule forms a HELIX or “twisted ladder”:

DNA molecule forms a HELIX or “twisted ladder” __________ bonds _________ with _________ bonds __________ with Image from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif ADENINE THYMINE CYTOSINE GUANINE

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Double Helix The name of the s hape of DNA molecule

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This is NUCLEOTIDE DNA is made of millions of smaller units called Nucleotides

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A NUCLEOTIDE is made of three parts 3. P hosphate 1.Nitrogen Base 2. Sugar

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NUCLEOTIDES 2 SUGARS can be used: ____________ (_____) ________ (____) DEOXYRIBOSE DNA RIBOSE RNA Sugars: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/fig5x27b.jpg Arrow: http://www.gifanimations.com/action/ImageDisplay/1/2/11/next

1. Nitrogenous bases:

12 1. N itrogenous bases DNA has four different bases: Thymine T Cytosine C Adenine A Guanine G

Strand of DNA:

Strand of DNA One strand of DNA is a polymer of nucleotides. One strand of DNA has many millions of nucleotides. nucleotide

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A  BASE PAIR  is one of the  pairs : A-T or C-G The nucleotides in a  base pair  are complementary which means their shape allows them to bond together with hydrogen bonds.

Chargraff’s Rule::

Chargraff’s Rule: Equal amounts of ADENINE and THYMINE always join together A T Equal Amounts of CYTOSINE and GUANINE always join together C G

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Chargaff’s Rule:

Chargaff’s Rule Adenine must pair with Thymine Guanine must pair with Cytosine Their amounts in a given DNA molecule will be about the same . G C T A

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Chromatin   is a strand of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

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HISTONES   are proteins that package DNA, acting as spools around which DNA winds.

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1. Enzyme HELICASE unwinds and separates the 2 DNA strands… Steps of DNA Replication :

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DNA POLYMERASE  is an enzyme that re-creates  DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides. These enzymes are essential to  DNA  replication and create two identical  DNA  strands from a single original  DNA  molecule.

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DNA  replication  is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule

A genetically determined characteristic:

A genetically determined characteristic TRAIT

Instructions on DNA that code for specific proteins or traits:

Instructions on DNA that code for specific proteins or traits GENES

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