The Plant Kingdom: The Plant Kingdom Chapter 1 Evolution of Plants: Evolution of Plants 3.5 billion years ago = bacteria & blue/green algae. 1 billion years ago = green algae 600 million years ago = 0 2 could support life. 400 million years ago = land plants. 350 million years ago = seed plants. Geographical Distribution: Geographical Distribution All over the earth with few limiting factors which are: Climate Water Temperature Roles of Plants: Roles of Plants Photosynthetic Process Autotrophs C0 2 and H 2 0 Sunlight & Chlorophyll Glucose, O 2 , & H 2 0 Energy Capture Food (Edible Plants): Food (Edible Plants) What parts of a plant do we eat? Roots Stems Leaves Flowers Seeds (Cereal Grains) Fruits Tubers Edible Plants: Edible Plants Sugar Angiosperms Largest amount of plants we eat come from this classification. Industrial Uses: Industrial Uses Wood Houses, furniture, turpentine Fibers Cotton, flax, hemp, Oils Soybean, coconut, cottonseed,.. Rubber Medicinal Uses: Medicinal Uses Health benefits Most pharmaceuticals Antibiotics Other Uses: Other Uses Fossil Fuels Prehistoric Plants-captured solar energy Oil and Gas Buried Plant material that has undergone chemical changes Animal –vs- Plant Kingdoms: Animal –vs- Plant Kingdoms Mobile Need to feed themselves Lack a cell wall of cellulose (flaccid) Cellulose not synthesized Growth is limited Generally not mobile Contain chlorophyll to make own food Cell walls made of cellulose Cellulose synthesized by cells Growth is unlimited Kingdom Plantae: Kingdom Plantae 500,000 kinds of plants exist. Many don’t fit well. Recent trends based on evolutionary origins & Relationship. Monera; the bacteria & blue green algae. Protista; all other algae & the protozoans. Mycota, fungi; such as mushrooms & molds Plantae; mosses, ferns, seed plants & several minor groups. Taxonomy: Taxonomy Theophrastus (370-285 B.C) started to record names. Used Common Names. Cause confusion Plant Classification: Plant Classification There must be a systematic method to evaluate the species of the planet consistently. There are many ways. Nomenclature is the system of assigning names. Nomenclature: Nomenclature Scientific communities use Latin,Greek, and Arabic to name Names are use to signify origins or characteristics For example: names for leaves are phylla, follia, phyllon, folius Prefixes are also used: micro-small macro-large Microphylla, Magnolia grandiflora Classification: Classification Carl von Linne is the creator of the classification system by the publication of Hortus in 1732 Binomial – Two names the G enus and the species. Genus always capitalized and species lower case and both should be italicized. How to Classify Plants: How to Classify Plants Phylogenetic = How they look Environmental = where they grow (climate regions) Agricultural = What use they are grown for Natural/morpholigal = how their structures compares Artificial Classification Systems: Artificial Classification Systems Climatic Agricultural Botanical Systems: Botanical Systems Structure of the plants Example of a complete classification of an Onion plant.: Example of a complete classification of an Onion plant. Kingdom: Plantae Division: Anthophyta Class: Monocotyledonae Order: Liliales Family: Amaryllidaceae Genus: Allium Species: Allium cepa L Divisions or phylla: Divisions or phylla Thallophyta - algae, and fungi no tissue differentiation. Bryophyta – green plants w/o true roots or flowers. Mosses & liverworts Pteridophyta - green plants with vascular system, true roots, usually distinct leaves & stems but no true flowers or seeds, has spores Spermatophyta – plants with true flowers producing seeds. Further Separation: Further Separation Spermatophyta-further divided: gymnosperms & angiosperms Gymnospermae = naked seed (in cones) Angiospermae = seed protected Subclasses-Angiosperms: Mono & dicotyledons Class: Class Monocotyledoneae = one cotyledon, generally parallel veins, flower parts in 3’s & 6’s. Dicotyledoneae = two cotyledon, net-veined leaves, flower parts in 4’s & 5’s or multiples of 4’s & 5’s Lower Subdivisions: Lower Subdivisions Order Family Genus Species Form Variety/Cultivar/Clone Sub specific Categories: Sub specific Categories Botanical Variety- different from wild hence var.. Cultivar- little genetic variation “cv” Hybrid- crossbreeding use an “x” Family- closely related genera nightshade, sunflower New Taxonomic Tools: New Taxonomic Tools Chemical analysis – composition of the plant Protein analysis DNA analysis – genetic finger printing.