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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Basic Hardware Knowledge and Troubleshooting : 08.17.2009 Pradeep.V.K.Chimalapati Basic Hardware Knowledge and Troubleshooting AIM OF THE SESSION : AIM OF THE SESSION To understand system specifications To understand components inside a system Installation of OS and drivers on a system Test system maintaining and Basic Troubleshooting 2 Topics to be covered : Topics to be covered Basic overview of a Mother Board Processors Intel Processors AMD Processors CPU Sockets Memory (RAM Types) PC Chipset Expansion slots (AGP, PCI, PCIE) Power Connecters Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting Installation of OS and Booting Process ???Questions ??? 3 Basic overview of a Mother Board : Basic overview of a Mother Board 4 Slide 5: 5 Slide 6: 6 Processors : Processors 7 Processor : Processor A short form for microprocessor and also often called the CPU Responsible for every single thing the PC does The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer 8 Processor Specification : Processor Specification Processor Name Types: 32 Bit/64 Bit, Core(Single, Dual, Quad etc), Hyper-Threading Internal Clock Speed 9 Multi Core(Dual, Quad etc) : Multi Core(Dual, Quad etc) A multi-core processor is a processing system composed of two or more independent cores (or CPUs). The cores are typically integrated onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP), or they may be integrated onto multiple dies in a single chip package. A dual-core processor contains two cores, and a quad-core processor contains four cores. A multi-core processor implements multiprocessing in a single physical package. 10 Slide 11: 11 Hyper-Threading : Hyper-Threading Hyper-threading (officially termed Hyper-Threading Technology or HTT) is an Intel-proprietary technology used to improve parallelization of computations (doing multiple tasks at once) performed on PC microprocessors. A processor with hyper-threading enabled is treated by the operating system as two processors instead of one. 12 Slide 13: 13 INTEL Processors : INTEL Processors Processors for Desktop Intel® Celeron® processor(950 MHz to 2.80 GHz) Intel® Pentium® 4 processor supporting Hyper-threading Technology Intel® Pentium® D processor(Dual Core Processor) Intel® Pentium® processor Extreme Edition(Dual core with HT) Processor For Laptop Intel® Pentium® M processor Processor For Workstation Intel® Xeon® Processor Processor For Server Intel® Itanium® 2 processor 14 AMD Processors : AMD Processors AMD Athlon(For PCs and Notebooks) Athlon 64 series – 2800+ to 4000+, Single core, 1.8 to 2.4GHz Athlon 64 FX series – FX 51, 53,55,57,60, 2.2 to 2.6 GHz Athlon 64 X2 Dual core -3800+ to 4800 +, Dual core, 2 to 2.4GHz. AMD OPTRON(For Server and Workstations) Dual Core 32bit and 64bit computing AMD TURION(For notebooks Mobile technology) 32bit/64bit computing AMD SEMPRON(For PCs and Notebooks) Sempron series 2200+ to 3400+, 1.5GHz to 2 GHz, Single core 15 CPU SOCKETS : CPU SOCKETS Pin Grid Array or PGA with Zero Insertion Force (ZIF) 16 Socket 478 type socket used for Intel's Pentium 4 and Celeron series CPUs Socket 939 - AMD Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2, Opteron 100-series CPU SOCKETS : CPU SOCKETS Land Grid Array (LGA) in which the pins are on the socket side 17 Socket 775(also known as LGA 775 or Socket T) Intel Pentium 4, Pentium D, Celeron D, Pentium Extreme Edition Memory (RAM Types) : Memory (RAM Types) 18 Memory (RAM Types) : Memory (RAM Types) SDRAM SDRAM is Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. SDRAM comes in 168-pin DIMMs Speeds included PC-66, PC-100, and PC-133, representing 66, 100 and 133 MHz 19 SDRAM has 168 pins and 2 notches Memory (RAM Types) : Memory (RAM Types) DDR RAM DDR SDRAM is Double-Data-Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory It achieves greater bandwidth than ordinary SDRAM by transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal Power consumption 2.5 V 20 DDR memory has 184 pins and one notch Memory (RAM Types) : Memory (RAM Types) DDR2 RAM Primary improvement that DDR2 brings over its predecessor is the operation of the external data bus at twice the memory clock rate. DDR2 SDRAM achieves 4 data transfers per memory clock cycle With a bus frequency of say 100 MHz, DDR2 SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 3200 MB/s. Power consumption 1.8 V 21 DDR2 memory has 240 pins and one notch Memory (RAM Types) : Memory (RAM Types) DDR3 RAM Primary benefit of DDR3 is the ability to transfer twice the data rate of DDR2 Main benefit of DDR3 comes from the higher bandwidth made possible by DDR3's 8-bit wide prefetch buffer Power Consumption 1.5 V 22 DDR3 memory has 240 pins and one notch PC Chipset : PC Chipset 23 PC CHIPSETS : PC CHIPSETS Chipset often refers to the two main motherboard chips: the north bridge and south bridge. The North bridge, also known as a Memory Controller Hub (MCH), typically handles communications between the CPU, RAM, AGP port or PCI Express, and the south bridge. The Southbridge, also known as an I/O Controller Hub (ICH), handles PCI bus , ISA bus , DMA controller, Interrupt controller, IDE (SATA or PATA) controller, Non-volatile BIOS memory etc 24 Slide 25: 25 EXPANSION SLOTS : EXPANSION SLOTS 26 Expansion Slots : Expansion Slots AGP- Accelerated Graphics Port (Advanced Graphics Port) Is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer's motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics 27 AGP Slot Expansion Slots : Expansion Slots PCI- Peripheral Component Interconnect Is a computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer Typical PCI cards used in PCs include: network cards, sound cards, modems, extra ports such as USB or serial, TV tuner cards, video cards and disk controllers 32Bit and 64Bit bus width, 133MBps transfer rate, 3.3 or 5 volt 28 32 Bit PCI Slots 64Bit PCI Slots Expansion Slots : Expansion Slots PCIE- Peripheral Component Interconnect Express Is a computer expansion card standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP standards Typical PCI Express is used in consumer, server, and industrial applications, as a motherboard-level interconnect (to link motherboard-mounted peripherals) and as an expansion card interface for add-in boards. 29 PCI Express slots Power Connecters : Power Connecters 30 Mother board power connector – 20 pin Add on device power connector SATA power connector PCI Express card power connector HARD DISKS : 31 HARD DISKS Hard disk drive : Hard disk drive Is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. Types of Hard Disk drives PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment) SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) USB External Hard Disk drives 32 Slide 33: 33 IDE connectors on Mother board 40 wire ribbon cable IDE cable connector SATA Ports on mother board SATA cable connector SATA Power cable connector Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting : Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions. Once a disk is divided into several partitions, directories and files of different categories may be stored in different partitions. All these primary partitions are described by 16-byte entries that constitute the Partition Table which is located in the master boot record (MBR). Partitioning can be done while installing the OS, or through utilities like fdisk in DOS and disk manager in Windows If one partition becomes corrupt, only that partition suffers and not the whole hard drive Two types of partitions(in case of Windows based systems) Primary Extended 34 Slide 35: 35 Slide 36: 36 Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting : Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting Disk partitioning is very useful because Technical limitations (Like maximum partition size) FAT16 – 2GB, FAT32 -2TB (with win2K, 32GB only), NTFS - 18 billion Gigabytes If one partition becomes corrupt, only that partition suffers and not the whole hard drive Each partition can be customized to different requirements Partitioning can be done while installing the OS, or through utilities like fdisk in DOS and disk manager in Windows or third party utilities like Partition Magic. 37 Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting : Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting Disk formatting is the process of preparing a hard disk or other storage medium for use, including setting up an empty file system. Different partitions can be formatted with different file systems Formatting a drive (or partition) destroys the computer's records of the data it contains Disk formatting is the only process of preparing a hard disk for use with the file system Different partitions can be formatted with different file systems Difference between Deleting and Formatting 38 Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting : Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting FILE SYSTEMS : File system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. 1. File Allocation Table (FAT) Developed by Microsoft Used in DOS, Windows – up to Win-ME. Two versions – FAT16, FAT32 FAT keeps record of clusters on a partition, in which data is stored (Cluster mapping ) 2. NTFS (New Technology File System) Used from Windows 2000 onwards Not backward compatible Increased security 39 Slide 40: 40 Format option window of Windows XP Quick format will not check for bad sectors on the disk while formatting. So it is fast Slide 41: 41 Installation of OS and Booting Process : Installation of OS and Booting Process 42 Installing WINDOWS: Pointers : Installing WINDOWS: Pointers BIOS settings Booting from CD Hard Disk Partitioning File copy and finishing installation Installing drivers Installing Anti virus Installing Patches Creating test folders Copying of test files Create Restore points and/or create an Image for the setup 43 Booting Process : Booting Process Booting is a process sequence that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. So what are the steps the computer takes to get started ? 1. BIOS program initialization. 2. Power On Self Test (POST) 3. Search for boot device as per the boot order setting in BIOS. 4. BIOS reads Master boot record of the boot device, which contains the partition information and codes for loading OS 5. The MBR reads the boot sector which is the first sector of the active partition. This sector contains the code that starts Ntldr which is the boot strap loader for Windows XP. 44 Booting Process: Cont…. : Booting Process: Cont…. 6. The Ntldr start the file system, read boot.ini file and put up the boot menu 7. Selecting XP from the boot menu causes Ntldr to run Ntdetect.com to get information about installed hardware 8. Ntldr, then, loads the two files that make up the core of XP: Ntoskrnl.exe and Hal.dll 9. Ntldr reads the registry files, selects a hardware profile, control set and loads device drivers, in order. 10. Then, Ntoskrnl.exe takes over and starts Winlogon.exe which starts Lsass.exe (Local Security Administration), this is the program that displays the Welcome screen and allows the user to log on with his/her user name and password. 45 References : References External Links http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motherboard http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_processing_unit http://www.intel.com/products/processor/index.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random-access_memory http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk_drive http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_partitioning http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_formatting http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booting http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi_boot http://pc-tutorials.co.cc/ 46 Slide 47: THANKS 47 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.