Run-on sentences, comma splices and fused sentences Capitalization 201

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Run-on sentences, comma splices and fused sentences

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Commas save lives….

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We are going to cut and paste kids. We are going to cut and paste, kids!

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A woman, without her man, is nothing A woman: without her, man is nothing

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…but before beginning with punctuation… It’s important to clear out two important concepts: Dependent Clause: It’s a part of a sentence that does not make sense on its own. Example: When the president arrives , he’ll begin his speech Dependent clause

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…but before beginning with punctuation… Independent Clause: It’s a part of a sentence that can stand alone and has complete meaning on itself. Example: The beach is a lot of fun, but the mountains are even better. Independent clause Dependent clause

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Now… some punctuation typical mistakes!

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Run-on Sentences. A  RUN-ON SENTENCE   are two sentences joined together with only a coordinating conjunction. Example: The sun is high so put on some sunblock . Independent clause 1 Independent clause 1 Independent clauses should always be separated by periods, or a comma should be placed before the conjunction. Conjunction “so” ,so

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Run-on Sentences . When you use a comma to connect two independent clauses, it must be accompanied by a little conjunction  (and, but, for, nor, yet, or, so). Example: The sun is high , so put on some sunblock . Independent clause 1 Independent clause 2 Conjunction “so” preceded by comma

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Run-on Sentences A Run-on sentence also occurs when two independent clauses are connected by a transitional expression such as  however, moreover, nevertheless, and they are separated just by commas. This is incorrect: Mr. Nguyen has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges, however, he has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.

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Where that first comma appears, we could have used either a period or a semicolon: Mr. Nguyen has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges. (;) However, he has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery. Run-on Sentences

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Fused sentences. Fused sentences  are two independent clauses joined together with nothing between them. Example: They weren't dangerous criminals they were detectives in disguise. Independent clause 1 Independent clause 2

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Fused sentences. In order to fix fused sentences, you should separate both clauses using a period . Example: They weren't dangerous criminals. They were detectives in disguise.

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Comma splice Comma splices are two complete sentences that are joined by a comma. Example: We hiked for three days, we were very tired. 

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In order to fix comma a comma splice, use a period or a semi-colon. Example: We hiked for three days. (;) We were very tired.   Comma splice

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In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. Use the formula “, conjuntion ” to join sentences: In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. Use the formula “, conjuntion ” to join sentences: The gardens are dry, and the road to the shore is dusty. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. Use the formula “, conjuntion ” to join sentences: The gardens are dry, and the road to the shore is dusty. Use the formula “. (;) connector,” to join sentences: In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. Use the formula “, conjuntion ” to join sentences: The gardens are dry, and the road to the shore is dusty. Use the formula “. (;) connector,” to join sentences: He doesn't study much; however, he gets good grades at school. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. Use the formula “, conjuntion ” to join sentences: The gardens are dry, and the road to the shore is dusty. Use the formula “. (;) connector,” to join sentences: He doesn't study much; however, he gets good grades at school. Never write independent clauses without connectors, conjunctions or punctuation. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. Use the formula “, conjuntion ” to join sentences: The gardens are dry, and the road to the shore is dusty. Use the formula “. (;) connector,” to join sentences: He doesn't study much; however he gets good grades at school. Never write independent clauses without connectors, conjunctions or punctuation. You can only be young once you can be immature forever. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses with periods or semi-colons: He often watched TV when there were only reruns. She preferred to read instead. Use the formula “, conjuntion ” to join sentences: The gardens are dry, and the road to the shore is dusty. Use the formula “. (;) connector,” to join sentences: He doesn't study much; however he gets good grades at school. Never write independent clauses without connectors, conjunctions or punctuation. You can only be young once you can be immature forever. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses from dependent clauses with commas. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses from dependent clauses with commas. When we arrived, the man started explaining what happened. In summary…

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Separate independent clauses from dependent clauses with commas. When we arrived, the man started explaining what happened. Remember! Commas save lives….. In summary…

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Compiled from: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/exercises/5/26/5/ http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/runons.htm http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/punct/avcsfsro.html

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Capitalization Rules Why are capital letters important ? Capital letters : guide readers through the text . show grammatical distinction in some languages ( e.g. , subject “I” is always capitalized in English ) highlight important words in a text show respect to people

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What do we write in upper case letters? 1.The first letter in a sentence. It signals the beginning and guides the reader. 2. The pronoun “I” In English, pronoun “I” is always written in capital letter. This is a very important rule. The rest of the pronouns are not capitalized.  

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What do we write in upper case letters? 3. Proper names and titles of people: Mr. Smith Dr. Jackson 4. Names of mountains, mountain ranges, hills and volcanoes Gellert Hill Mount Olympus

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What do we write in upper case letters? 5. Names of bodies of water (rivers, lakes, oceans, seas, streams and creeks) L ake E rie, I ndian O cean, D ead S ea. 6. Names of buildings, monuments, bridges and tunnels E iffel T ower, S tatue of L iberty, G olden G ate B ridge 

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What do we write in upper case letters? 7. When a colon is followed by an independent clause: Maggie wears a brimmed cap at all times:  S trong light often gives her a headache . 8. Members Of National, Political, Racial, Social, Civic, And Athletic Groups The Dalai Lama is a  B uddhist.

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What do we write in upper case letters? 9. To write months of the year and says of the week: We will go to Houston in J uly. We will see each other next W ednesday

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When not to use Capital letters 1. In lists preceded by a colon: They had many colors: blue, red, orange. 2. After semicolons: The woman was heartbreakingly beautiful; she was dark and stormy; she was utterly dangerous. …unless followed by a proper name: Let’s go to Europe; Paris is nice in the spring.

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When not to use Capital letters 3. After commas: Yesterday, we went to the park for a picnic.

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As a final thought… Nowadays, with the extensive use of cellphones, people do not pay much attention to capitalization; however, the use of capital letters is important, for it will show your professionalism when writing texts.

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From: www.grammarly.com/handbook/punctuation/comma/3/comma-usage/ http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/capitalization/10-rules-of-capitalization.html

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