Hardware&Networking

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Presentation for Hardware and networking

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Computer Hardware : 

Computer Hardware Hardware: The internal structure of computers, how they operate and how they are used in solving problems. General Overview

What is a Computer System? : 

What is a Computer System? What is it comprise of? How would you define it?

Robots = Computer Systems? : 

Robots = Computer Systems?

Computer Systems : 

Computer Systems Hardware Software Hardware=The physical components (electrical circuits) that make up the computer Software=The computer programs (sequences of instructions) that tell the computer what to do in response to a command or some event.

Slide 6: 

WINDOWS Versions: 95 / 98 / Me / 2000 / XP / Vista LINUX RED HAT / MANDRAKE MACINTOSH Versions: MAC OS 9 / MAC OS X

How do we communicate with computers? : 

How do we communicate with computers? What does this symbol Mean?

Language called BINARY : 

Language called BINARY

The only thing a computer understands is : 

The only thing a computer understands is 1 0

Components of a Computer : 

Components of a Computer MAIN MEMORY PROCESSOR INPUT DEVICES AUXILIARYSTORAGE OUTPUT DEVICES For reading data into Main Memory For processing the data For printing, displaying Or out-put of info For permanent storage of programs and data The program currently being executed is stored here. (it is divided into storage units called BYTES) Fix The Mistakes

Components of a Computer : 

Components of a Computer MAIN MEMORY PROCESSOR INPUT DEVICES AUXILIARYSTORAGE OUTPUT DEVICES For reading data into Main Memory For processing the data For printing, displaying Or out-put of info For permanent storage of programs and data The program currently being executed is stored here. (it is divided into storage units called BYTES)

Think of the Brain (System) : 

Think of the Brain (System) INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Exam Results! Information for the Exam….

Computer Systems are the same : 

Computer Systems are the same Data is INPUT Data is PROCESSED Something is OUTPUT GIGO (Garbage in…Garbage out..)

Types of Computer : 

Types of Computer Minicomputers Mainframe Computers Supercomputers

Minicomputers : 

Minicomputers Multi-user systems 100’s of workstations or terminals attached to central minicomputer E.g. EPOS (Electronic Point of Sale) Systems

Mainframe computers : 

Mainframe computers Large Organisations –banks, building societies, airlines, governments May have 1000’s of terminals –geographically remote locations Could occupy a whole site 100’s of disk drives & hardware units Location often kept secret! (terrorist attacks)

Supercomputers : 

Supercomputers Largest Category of computer Cost Millions Mostly used by scientific and industrial research departments NASA –government agencies Weather Centres Stock Exchanges Large Commercial Organisations

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : 

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer?

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : 

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer?

NASA Goddard Space Centre : 

NASA Goddard Space Centre Fourth Largest Supercomputer in the world Linux Operating System Huge Memory Processing Power –unparalleled!

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : 

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer?

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : 

PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer?

Dr. Mark Seager of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory inspects the world's fastest __________________a 64-rack Blue Gene complex. : 

Dr. Mark Seager of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory inspects the world's fastest __________________a 64-rack Blue Gene complex. From picasaweb.google.com/.../KyPjMrKhtXMLpvIkZ4Jhtw

The processor : 

The processor PROCESSES! Faster the processor, better the PC?

What is the equivalent (in humans) to the processor? : 

What is the equivalent (in humans) to the processor? How does the Brain process? -receives an instruction (stimulus) -decodes & produces an appropriate instruction -executes the instruction! -slap on the cheek –anger/revenge etc logged -anger decoded –instruction to slap back -slap back! (OR TURN THE OTHER CHEEK?)

Processor : 

Processor Brain of the computer Processes instructions THREE STEPS 1) Fetches Instructions 2) Decodes Instruction 3) Executes Instruction

What is a Processor? : 

What is a Processor? Most computers use integrated chips….or integrated circuits for their processors or main memory A chip is about 1cm square…and can hold MILLIONS of electronic components such as transistors and resistors CPU of a microcomputer is a microprocessor Processor and MAIN MEMORY of a PC are held on a single board called a motherboard.

PROCESSORS : 

PROCESSORS Either chips or integrated circuits Integrated circuits are also found in almost every modern electrical device such as cars, television sets, CD players, cellular phones, etc.

Slide 31: 

Types of DRAM Burst EDO RAM Operates at a faster rate than the EDO RAM. supported by chipset Intel 440 FX. Synchronous DRAM Operates in synchronization with the memory bus. The latency period is reduced. Supported by Chipsets 430 VX 430 TX and Intel chipsets.

Slide 32: 

Types of DRAM Double Data Rate (DDR) SDRAM It is an improved form of SDRAM The data is transferred twice per clock cycle. DDR2RAM It is designed to consume less power Introduced with the Intel i915 and i925 chipsets.

CHIP : 

CHIP A computer chip is an electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. An electric circuit is made from different electrical components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors and diodes, that are connected to each other in different ways. These components have different behaviors. The transistor acts like a switch Resistor –resists electricity –so you can control current Capacitor –controls electricity Diode –also allows control of current and flow

Why Integrated Circuits (transistors)? : 

Why Integrated Circuits (transistors)? Before –there were VACUUM TUBE They were huge –costly –bulky –easily burned out The first Computer –ENIAC –huge 30 ton monster! *use of 18000 or so vacuum tubes*

Types of Processors : 

Types of Processors INTEL

A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. : 

A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. Jack Kilby's Integrated circuit, the first working Integrated circuit created

New Super-Efficient Chip Could Run on Body Heat : 

New Super-Efficient Chip Could Run on Body Heat

MAIN MEMORY : 

MAIN MEMORY The program currently being executed and the data used by the program is held in MAIN MEMORY MM is divided into millions of individually addressable storage units called BYTES One byte can hold one character Or one byte can hold a code representing something –i.e a part of a picture, or a sound, or a program instruction. The total number of bytes in MM = The computers MEMORY SIZE.

Computer Memory Sizes : 

Computer Memory Sizes 1 KB (KB) =1024 Bytes 1 MB =1024KB 1 GB =1024MB 1Tb =1024GB (about 1 trillion bytes)

Main Memory : 

Main Memory Processing power and Main Memory in a computer has increased exponentially in the past year! It has grown at a rate that no one could have predicted. 1980 –Microcomputers with 32K of memory were bought for thousands of homes and schools!

Bill Gates made the famous remark… : 

Bill Gates made the famous remark… “640 K ought to be enough for anybody..” 1981…. Things have changed drastically! 2004 –PC with 512 MB of MM was standard….

Today? : 

Today?

Watch this (hilarious!) Notice how excited they were on unveiling this machine… : 

Watch this (hilarious!) Notice how excited they were on unveiling this machine… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zJ12vNZ5yMY *also notice how the audience CLAPS when the floppy Disk is taken out of his pocket! (in those days the thought Of storage that could be moved around was revolutionary!)

RAM and ROM : 

RAM and ROM There are two kinds of Memory RAM –Random Access Memory (MM) (this is used for storing programs that are currently running and data that is being processed) ROM –Read Only Memory (its contents are PERMANENTLY etched into the memory chip at the manufacturing stage. It is used –for example –to load the bootstrap loader (the program that loads as soon as you start the machine)

RAM : 

RAM Random Access memory Main Memory Stores info about applications that are open and data VOLATILE – When you switch off the machine, it disappears!!!

ROM : 

ROM Read only memory Non-Volatile (does not change) Programs that are necessary for the computer to run Boot up program etc

Cache Memory : 

Cache Memory This is a very FAST type of memory that is used to improve the spped of a computer, DOUBLING it ….in some cases. Acts as an intermediate store between CPU and MM It works by storing most frequently or recently used instructions so that it is fast to retrive them again. Cache is usually between 1KB and 512KB

Disk Storage : 

Disk Storage Auxiliary storage is also called SECONDARY MEMORY BACKING STORE EXTERNAL MEMORY The most common secondary memory (auxiliary storage) is DISK!

Hard disk & Floppy Disk : 

Hard disk & Floppy Disk All standalone PC’s come equipped with an in-built hard disk –the capacity of which is also measured in BYTES. A typical hard disk nowadays is several gigabytes - - is used for storing software including the OPERATING SYSTEM..and other systems software.

Other types of Storage : 

Other types of Storage Flash Memory Cards Sticks Floppy discs Disks

INPUT AND OUTPUT devices : 

INPUT AND OUTPUT devices Input devices are the means whereby computers can accept data or instructions Keyboards, magnetic strip cards, smart cards, magnetic ink character recognition devices, Output –printer, VDU monitors, speakers, etc

Embedded Computers and special-purpose computers : 

Embedded Computers and special-purpose computers Not necessarily all computers are general purpose compuers with a screen, keyboard and disk drive. Special-purpose or dedicated computers can do all sorts of things from controlling the temperature in a greenhouse to controlling traffic lights or using a cash point Embedded Computers are used in household,goods,automobiles and in industry

All Computer Systems : 

All Computer Systems Have the same basic components (INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MEMORY) Special-purpose computers however usually have the programs etched onto the ROM so that they cannot be altered. (Firmware)

What is this an example of? : 

What is this an example of?

Household goods…all examples of..? : 

Household goods…all examples of..? Devices/Machines with Embedded Computers Programs are in ROM (cannot be altered)

All Examples of…!? : 

All Examples of…!? Wireless Temperature Control unit for Greenhouse Special Purpose or Dedicated Computers. Traffic Light Control Board

Odd one out? : 

Odd one out? Scanner is INPUT, the rest are OUTPUT devices Monitor Printers Scanner

Storage Devices : 

Storage Devices Edison cylinder phonograph ca. 1899. The Phonograph cylinder is a storage medium. The phonograph may or may not be considered a storage device. Many different consumer electronic devices can store data.

The Future of Storage? : 

The Future of Storage?

Storage Medium and Memory : 

Storage Medium and Memory

Slide 63: 

Network

Slide 64: 

What is common to all these? Time

Slide 65: 

Networking

Slide 66: 

How Networks Impact Daily Life Describe ways communication over a network supports the way we play

Slide 67: 

Describe the role of converged networks in communications A type of network that can carry voice, video & data over the same network

Slide 68: 

Network Architecture

Slide 69: 

Physical Components of Network

Slide 70: 

Coaxial Cable Consists of a central copper core surrounded by an insulator, a braided metal shielding, called braiding, and an outer cover, called the sheath or jacket High bandwidth – Up to 400 MHz Max. used data rates – 100 Mbps High quality of data transmission Signal loss at high frequencies

Slide 71: 

Twisted Pair Cable Consists of color-coded pairs of twisted & insulated copper wires Used extensively in telephone cables Is inexpensive, flexible, and easy to install All twisted pair cables fall into two categories – Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Slide 72: 

Fiber Optic Cable Very high bandwidths of up to several Gbps Light is used as source Could be used for long distances covering hundreds of kilometers Provide very high bandwidth – up to 20, 000 MHz Low interference provides highly efficient transmission High costs are currently the only drawback

Slide 74: 

Coaxial Cable Connector

Slide 76: 

Registered Jack (RJ) RJ-11 – Defined for telephone connectors RJ-45 – Defined for UTP connectors RJ 45 RJ 11

Slide 77: 

Common Topologies

Slide 78: 

Network Types Local Area Networks (LANs) - A network serving a home, building or campus is considered a Local Area Network (LAN)

Slide 79: 

Wide Area Networks (WANs) - LANs separated by geographic distance are connected by a network known as a Wide Area Network (WAN)

Slide 80: 

MAN – Metropolitan Area Network A network that connects two or more LANs, but does not extend beyond the boundaries or the immediate town or city Shevapet Steel Plant Fairlands Hasthampatti

Slide 81: 

Network Devices Switch Routers Servers

Slide 83: 

Basic Network Media Required to Make a LAN Connection.

Slide 86: 

Function of Protocol in Network Communication Network protocols are used to allow devices to communicate successfully

Slide 87: 

Protocol A Protocol is an agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. The protocol determines the following: the type of error checking to be used data compression method, if any how the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message how the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message

Slide 88: 

( Open System Interconnection ) OSI Model It is a reference model designed by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1974

Slide 89: 

Computer B 6. Presentation 5. Session 4. Transport 3. Network 2. Data Link 1. Physical Picture on web browser Encoded picture (JPG) Initiates communications (HTTP) Communication PC to PC (TCP) IP Address assignment Network Interface (NIC) 7. Application 6. Presentation 5. Session 4. Transport 3. Network 2. Data Link 1. Physical Picture on web browser Encoded picture (JPG) Initiates communications (HTTP) Communication PC to PC (TCP) IP Address assignment Network Interface (NIC) . . . 010100110 Layers Layers Computer A 7. Application 010100110 Communication between Computers

Slide 90: 

Addressing Just as we use postal address, email address to communicate with our friends, we do need an address to identify our computer in this web of network. There are two different ways of identifying our machine in a network. MAC address and IP address

Slide 91: 

MAC Address MAC addresses are usually written in one of the following two formats:00:13:21:0F:83:DF 00-13-21-0F-83-DF MAC address is a 48 bit address MAC address are 12 digit Hexadecimal {0-9} {A- F} Address

Slide 92: 

MAC Address

Slide 93: 

Internet Protocol Address is given to the computer as an identifier to a computer in a TCP/IP Network IP Address is also known as Logical Address IP Address works in Layer 3 (Network) Two versions of IP Addressing IP Version 4 - 32 bit address (used currently) IP Version 6 - 128 bit address IP Address

Slide 94: 

Command Prompt Window

Slide 96: 

How Safe is your Computer

Slide 98: 

Security Technologies

Slide 99: 


Slide 100: 

Wireless Technology

Slide 101: 

Fax

Slide 102: 

WWW (World Wide Web)

Slide 103: 

Channel Channel 7 Channel 7 Channel 7 Channel 11 Channel 1 Frames

Slide 104: 

Channel Channel 1 Channel 6 Channel 11 Channel 11 Channel 1 Frames

Slide 105: 

Mobility Wireless Links MobileWireless Appliances

Slide 106: 

Last Mile Data Delivery Wireless Internet Service Providers provide Internet access to remote places WISP Remote Residence

Slide 107: 

Wireless Wide Area Network Wireless Wide Area Networking or Mobile Broadband is accomplished through the use of mobile phone signals.  Mobile Broadband Networks are typically provided and maintained by specific mobile phone (cellular) service providers.  Connectivity can be maintained anywhere there is cellular phone service available from the provider Range is in miles rather than feet Transfers data at the speed of 3 Gbps

Slide 111: 

How Far Will IT Skills Take You? Anywhere there’s a network

Slide 112: 

Cisco Networking Academy Program STUDENTS WORLDWIDE 1.6 Million + TOTAL EXAMS TAKEN40 Million +

Slide 113: 

Networking Academy Product PortfolioFuture Network Installer Basic IT Support System Admin Small and Medium Business Networking Enterprise Networking CAREERS CCNPAdvanced RoutingRemote AccessMultilayerSwitchingTroubleshooting Wireless Security FUNDAMENTALS CCNA-Routing,Switching,WANs,Intro to Adv Tech

Slide 114: 

The Cisco Opportunity:Enterprise Networking Leadership 3Com 1% Dell 3% Compaq 3% IBM 4% Nortel 7% Cisco 80% Other 2%

Slide 116: 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & Networking Carrier

Slide 117: 

Where has India come from? Historically - an agriculture based economy 1950’s onwards: heavy industry - e.g. petrochemicals, steel, with associated investment in power generation, water and infrastructure 1990’s onwards : IT & Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Three reasons why India: World beating education system, Mathematical ability, English Language * Result - booming economy

Slide 118: 

Skilled manpower Telecommunication and internet costs Reduced import duties on software and hardware products Encouraging government policies Some of the major reasons Cost advantages

Slide 119: 

Network growth

Slide 120: 

Infosys Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) Wipro IBM HP HCL Cognizant Technology Solutions (CTS) Patni Satyam India's IT industry caters to both domestic and export markets. Exports contribute around 75% of the total revenue of the Some of the major companies in the IT industry of India are -

Slide 121: 

Why Choose A Networking Career?

Slide 122: 

Key Engineering Services (ES) and Offshore Product Development (OPD) verticals of Indian ES and OPD exports (FY2008) NASSCOM http://www.nasscom.in

Slide 123: 

Internet Cell phone communication Company Education Bank Hospital Telecommunication Research Usage of network

Slide 124: 

Enterprise Networking Leadership 3Com 1% Dell 3% Compaq 3% IBM 4% Nortel 7% Cisco 80% Other 2%

Slide 126: 

Cisco Networking Academy Program STUDENTS WORLDWIDE 1.6 Million + TOTAL EXAMS TAKEN40 Million +

Slide 127: 

NASA and Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, CA, are collaborating to test and demonstrate Next Generation Internet hardware and software following the recent signing of a Memorandum of Understanding. By 2002, research and development by NASA and five other federal agencies on the Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative could result in information flowing over the Internet 100 to 1,000 times faster than today's speeds, according to NASA engineers. "Ames Research Center is NASA's Center of Excellence for Information Technology," said Dr. Kenneth Ford, Ames' Associate Director for Information Technology. "We plan to work with Cisco in projects that may lead to significant technical, scientific and economic benefits for the parties involved as well as for the nation." NASA, Cisco systems collaborate on next generation internet

Slide 130: 

The sign at a main entrance to the Microsoft corporate campus. The Redmond Microsoft campus today includes more than 8 million square feet (approx. 750,000 m²) and over 30,000 employees. Front entrance to building 17 on the main campus of the company's Redmond campus. The Xbox 360, Microsoft's second system in the gaming console market.

Slide 133: 

Carrer In Network Network Administrator System Administrator This entails a knowledge of operating systems and applications, as well as hardware and software troubleshooting, but also knowledge of the purposes for which people in the organization use the computers. Network administrator is a modern profession responsible for the maintenance of computer hardware and software that comprises a computer network. This normally includes the deployment, configuration, maintenance and monitoring of active network equipment. A related role is that of the network specialist, or network analyst, who concentrate on network design and security.

Slide 134: 

Major Course Offered CCNA Redhat Linux MCSA,MCSE & MCTS CISCO CERTIFIED NETWORK ASSOCIATE MICROSOFT CERTIFIED SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR & MICROSOFT CERIFIED SYSTEM ENGINEER

HR INTERVIES : 

HR INTERVIES Key word Experience Certification Soft skill

Slide 139: 

Excellence of Incampus Quality Time Cost

Slide 140: 

Any Questions?

Slide 141: 

Fees Details

OUR ADDRESS : 

OUR ADDRESS IT GATEWAY SOLUTIONS 804,MAHESH BUILDING, NEAR TELEPHONE BHAVAN, BROUGH ROAD, ERODE -1 CONTACT NO : 97913-71339 99767-24038

Slide 143: 

Thanking you

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