Critical Discourse Analysis by Sajid

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Critical Discourse Analysis : 

Critical Discourse Analysis

DA & CDA: 

What is “Discourse”? What is “Text”? Text and Discourse What is Discourse Analysis? What is Critical Discourse Analysis? DA & CDA

What is CDA?: 

A discourse analytical research that: Studies how social power abuse, dominance and inequality are enacted , reproduced and resisted by text and talk in social and political contexts . Deals with the relationship between discourse and power (with the aim of understanding, exposing and resisting social inequality ). What is CDA?

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

What is CDA?: 

A discourse analytical research that: Focuses on how discourse structures enact, confirm, legitimise, reproduce or challenge relations of power and dominance in society. Rejects the possibility of a value-free science – as these inequalities are inherently a part social structures and are influenced by social interactions . What is CDA?

A Theoretical Framework:: 

Macro vs. Micro Levels of Analysis Macro-analysis : Power, Dominance, Inequality Micro-analysis : Language Use, Discourse, Verbal Interaction & Communication These 2 levels form 1 unified whole in everyday interaction and experience. A Theoretical Framework:

A Theoretical Framework:: 

2. Power as Control Source of Power : Privileged Access to Scarce Social Resources e.g. Fame? Types of Power : Coercive Force, Money, Knowledge, Information, Authority. Types of Responses: Resist, Accept, Condone, Comply, Legitimise (Indoctrination?) A Theoretical Framework:

Quick Discussion: : 

What is the most powerful form of persuasion? How do more powerful groups control public discourse? How does such discourse control the minds and actions of less powerful groups? What are the consequences of such control e.g. social inequality? Quick Discussion:

Control of Public Discourse: 

Public Discourse as a vital symbolic resource . Individual Level : Active Control ( Everyday Interaction ) vs. Passive Control ( Media Usage ) Macro Level : Professors ( Scholarly Discourse ), Journalists ( Media Discourse ), Teachers ( Educational Discourse ), Lawyers ( Legal Discourse ), Politicians ( Policy & Public Discourse ) Control of Public Discourse

Control of Public Discourse: 

Forms of Access & Control Context – Control over the Communicative Situation ( Setting, Discourse Genre and Content, Participants, Mental Representations ) Structure of Text and Talk – Topical Control ( Editors – News Coverage/Topics , Professors ), Lexical Items/Jargon/Volume . Control of Public Discourse

Control of Public Discourse: 

Mind Control : Mediated through Discourse ( especially News and Media ). Recipients tend to accept beliefs, knowledge and opinions especially when it comes through discourse from perceived authoritative, trustworthy or credible sources ( Scholars, Experts, Professionals, Reliable Media ) Control of Public Discourse

Control of Public Discourse: 

Mind Control is especially effective when: Target audiences are obliged to be passive recipients There is a lack of alternative discourse and beliefs There is a lack of resources, knowledge and expertise to challenge the discourse that we are exposed to. The lack of an explicit assertion results in a negligible chance that they will be challenged . Control of Public Discourse

Quick Discussion: 

What are the Areas/Topics that you want to examine in the News & Media Module using the CDA framework? E.g. biased representations of “us” and “them”, supremacist derogation, power and domination in politics etc. Please provide a clear indication on the IVLE Discussion Forum so that the subsequent lessons can be tailored specifically to your needs. Everyone MUST provide a Response as this will serve as an indicator of your participation in this online lecture. Quick Discussion

Verbal and nonverbal communication: 

Firm and sure voice Short sentences expressed with great clarity Deep self-confidence (she does not read anything, she speaks plainly and seems to be speaking off the cuff- but obviously she is not) Self-confident posture Lack of embarrassment Verbal and nonverbal communication

Quick review: 

Identify: Process, Participant, Circumstance We own every little bush, every little tree. On 10 July four men approached the British in a small canoe fitted with outriggers. Quick review

Answers: 

We own every little bush, every little tree. Participant Process: doing Participant Answers On 10 July four men approached the British in a small canoe fitted with outriggers Circ: when Participant Process: doing Participant Circumstance: how (?)

Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis: 

Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis

Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis: 

Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis Description: what does it look like? (text analysis) Explanation: why is it this way? (social analysis) Interpretation: what does it all mean? (processing analysis)

References: 

Gee, J. (1990). Social Linguistics and literacies: ideology in Discourses . London: The Falmer Press. Gerot, L. & Wignell, P. (1995). Making sense of functional grammar . AEE publishing: Queensland Halliday, M.A.K. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar . Arnold: UK Janks, H. (1997). Critical discourse analysis as a research tool. Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education . 18 (3). pp329-342. MacLure, M. (2003). Discourse in educational and social research . Buckingham: Open University Press. Wilhelm, J. (2007). Engaging readers and writers with enquiry: promoting deep understanding in Language Arts and the content areas with guiding questions . Sydney :Scholastic. References

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Q & A

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Thank you