second language acquisition

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Slide 1: 

1 WELCOME OUR LECTURER & PARTICIPANTS

HCM CITY OPEN UNIVERSITYDIPTESOL5B - 2009 GROUP 8 : 

2 HCM CITY OPEN UNIVERSITYDIPTESOL5B - 2009 GROUP 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

3 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA OUTLINE: 1. Ways of investigating the effects of input and interaction. 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. Lê Ti?n – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

4 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 1. Ways of investigating the effects of input and interaction. 1. The analysis of selected L2 input and interaction sequences. Native speaker / teacher to L2 learner. In this approach the relationship between input and out put is not established empirically, but it does offer many rich hypotheses. Ex: When Mr. Tung teaches us English, we can not only study his English but also his experience in learning English. (but not Mr. John or other native speakers) Lê Ti?n – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

5 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. Extrapolation from studies of the role of input and interaction in first language acquisition. Those who have good background in L1 will easily acquire L2. 3. Correlational studies. Input Output ? Good Good ? Lê Ti?n – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

6 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 4. Experimental studies. The linguistic environment is carefully controlled in order to investigate the effects of specific features. Often a comparison is made between the effects of two different kinds of input on separate groups. Lê Ti?n – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

7 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA Lê Ti?n – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

8 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. Formulaic speech: One way in which interaction can support SLA is by providing the learners with ready-made chunks of speech or ready-made expression or “scanned speech” (Hatch – 1983b). Formulaic speech consists of automatically memorized units. Learners develop formulaic speech as “ an immediate response to communicative pressure”. Hoàng Th? Kim Phu?ng – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

9 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. Formulaic speech: They memorize a number of ready-made expression such as “more milk, please”, “ I want folk, please”. It is easy for them to pick up classroom expression such as “no more talking” or “all right, everybody, going home”. And learners try to avoid using difficult words in conversation or try to avoid discussing the topic that they don’t know well. So this is one of individual learning technique. In this way, formulaic speech contributes directly to the route of SLA by providing raw materials for the learner’s internal mechanism to work on. Hoàng Th? Kim Phu?ng – Group 8

. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

10 . THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. 2. Vertical structure: The learners repeat what teachers or interlocutors have said before, and they add one or more words in front of or behind the key word. For example: T: Take a look at the next picture. P: Box. T: A box, yes. Repetition. P: A box banana plus a noun, simplification: “of” is omitted. Hoàng Th? Kim Phu?ng – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

11 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. 2. Vertical structure: Another example: Come here. No come here. The learner simply adds “no” to a previous chunk of language. That can explain why “no +V” pattern is so common in early SLA. In this way, vertical structure contributes to the natural route of development in SLA. Hoàng Th? Kim Phu?ng – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

12 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. 3. Frequency: Lasen-Freeman (1976) There are some morphemes in L1 correlating those in L2. Ask students to practice them frequently. However, According to Lightbown it may not create good both input and output. Ex: / s / ˜ /x/ / ? / ˜ /s/ Hoàng Th? Kim Phu?ng – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

13 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. 4. Comprehensible input: input 1. Input? Tr?n Thái M? – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

14 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. 2. Comprehensible input? Easily understood input Interaction Input Comprehensible input Before processing After processing one-way interaction: two-way interaction: Krashen(1981a;1982) Larsen-Freeman (1983a) Long (1983b;1983c) Chaudron(1983a) Swain(1983) Tr?n Thái M? – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

15 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 2. The effects of input and interaction on the route of SLA. 5. Input and intake. Input is what you hear. Intake is what you understand from input. Tr?n Thái M? – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

16 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. 1. Snow and Hoefnagel – Hohle (1982): - Learner of study: 30 English speaking learners of Dutch. - Age: 3 – 8 - Result: They examined the quantity of input, but it may be quality. Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

17 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. 2. Seliger (1977) (a German) - Learner of study: Adult classroom learners. - Result: Found a significant correlation between the quantity of interaction and achievement scores at the end of the course. Thus, the evidence regarding the effects of quantity of input is mixed. Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

18 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8 Class 1: (approach 1) Learner of study: Class with high numbers of L2 learners. Classroom organization: Teacher – directed. 3. Fillmore (1982) (born 1929 - an American linguist) Compared the progess of sixty L2 learners in kindergarten classrooms with 4 approaches: ? The input was comprehensible.

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

19 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8 3. Fillmore (1982) Compared the progess sixty L2 learners in kindergarten classrooms with 4 approaches: Class 2: (approach 2) Learner of study: Mixed L2 learners + L1 children. Classroom organization: Open. * Result of the approach 1 + 2 : (MUCH) success in SLA. ? The input was comprehensible.

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

20 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. 3. Fillmore (1982) Compared the progess of sixty L2 learners in kindergarten classrooms with 4 approaches: In contrast, Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8 Class 1: (approach 3) - Learner of study: Class with high numbers of L2 learners. - Classroom organization: Open. ? The LITTLE input results in LITTLE comprehensible.

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

21 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. 3. Fillmore (1982) Compared the progess of sixty L2 learners in kindergarten classrooms with 4 approaches: Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8 ? The LITTLE input results in LITTLE comprehensible. Class 2: (approach 4) - Learner of study: Mixed L2 learners + L1 children. - Classroom organization: Teacher – directed. * Result of the approach 3 + 4 : LITTLE success in SLA.

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

22 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. 3. Fillmore (1982) In other words, there was an interactive effect involving the composition of the classes and the type of organization. Fillmore’s study suggests that both the quantity and the quality of input are influential in determining the rate of SLA. Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

23 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. 4. Ellis (1984) (page 161) A high quantity of input directed at the learner. The learner’s perceived need to communicate in the L2. Independent control of the propositional content by the learner. (e.g. control over topic choice). 4. Adherence to the ‘here and now’ principle, at least initially. Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8

I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

24 I. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA 3. The effects of input and interaction on the rate of SLA. 5. The performance of a range of speech acts by both native speaker / teacher and the learner (i.e. the learner need the opportunity to listen to and produce language used to perform different language functions). 6. Exposure to a high quantity of directives. 7. Exposure to a high quantity of ‘extending’ utterances (e.g. request for clarification and confirmation, paraphrases and expansions). 8. Opportunities for uninhabited ‘practice’ (which may provide opportunities to experiment using ‘new’ forms). Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8

1. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA : 

25 1. THE ROLE OF INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8 * Summary: - the route of SLA 1 Formulaic speech Frequency 4 Comprehensible input - the rate of SLA

Slide 26: 

26 Nguy?n T?n Phu?c – Group 8 6. INPUT AND INTERACTION IN SLA

Thank you : 

27 Thank you

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