Chapter_08

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Chapter 8 Muscular Flexibility:

Chapter 8 Muscular Flexibility

Muscular Flexibility:

Muscular Flexibility Flexibility is the achievable range of motion at a joint or group of joints without causing injury When joints are not regularly moved through their entire range of motion, muscles and ligaments shorten, and flexibility decreases

Muscular Flexibility:

Muscular Flexibility Some muscular/skeletal problems and injuries are related to a lack of flexibility: Poor posture and subsequent aches and pains that lead to limited and painful joint movement Improper alignment of the vertebral column and pelvic girdle

Lack of physical activity leads to chronic back pain:

Lack of physical activity leads to chronic back pain Photo page 274 top

Benefits of Good Flexibility:

Benefits of Good Flexibility Good flexibility: Enhances quality of life Promotes healthy muscles and joints Greater freedom of movement Makes activities of daily living easier

Adequate flexibility helps develop sports skill:

Adequate flexibility helps develop sports skill Photo page 274 bottom

Benefits of Good Flexibility:

Benefits of Good Flexibility Too much flexibility leads to unstable and loose joints, which may increase injury rate, including joint subluxation and dislocation Subluxation is partial dislocation of a joint

Benefits of Good Flexibility:

Benefits of Good Flexibility Stretching means moving joints beyond the accustomed range of motion A regular stretching program: Increases circulation Prevents low-back problems Improves personal appearance

Benefits of Good Flexibility:

Benefits of Good Flexibility Flexibility exercises have been prescribed to treat dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), general neuromuscular tension (stress), and knots (trigger points) in muscles and fascia Stretching exercises are helpful in warm-up and in cool-down routines

Flexibility in Older Adults:

Flexibility in Older Adults Because of decreased flexibility, older adults lose mobility and may be unable to perform simple daily tasks Lack of flexibility also may cause falls and subsequent injury in older adults

Factors Affecting Flexibility:

Factors Affecting Flexibility Range of motion: Joint specific Varies from one joint to another Muscular flexibility relates to genetic factors, body temperature, age, and gender

Factors Affecting Flexibility:

Factors Affecting Flexibility Range of motion of a given joint depends mostly on the structure of that joint Joint cartilage Ligaments and tendons Muscles and skin Tissue injury Adipose tissue (fat)

Factors Affecting Flexibility:

Factors Affecting Flexibility Greater range of motion can be attained through plastic elongation (permanent lengthening of soft tissue) and elastic elongation (temporary lengthening of soft tissue) Sedentary living is the most significant contributor to lower flexibility

Assessment of Flexibility:

Assessment of Flexibility Tests to assess flexibility: Sit-and-reach test Total body rotation test Shoulder rotation test Take all three tests for flexibility profile

Procedure for sit-and-reach test:

Procedure for sit-and-reach test Figure 8.1

Percentile Ranks for Sit-and-Reach Test:

Percentile Ranks for Sit-and-Reach Test Table 8.1

Procedure for total body rotation test:

Procedure for total body rotation test Figure 8.2

Percentile Ranks for Total Body Rotation Test:

Percentile Ranks for Total Body Rotation Test Table 8.2

Procedure for shoulder rotation test:

Procedure for shoulder rotation test Figure 8.3

Percentile Ranks for Shoulder Rotation Test:

Percentile Ranks for Shoulder Rotation Test Table 8.3

Flexibility Fitness Categories by Percentile Rank:

Flexibility Fitness Categories by Percentile Rank Table 8.4

Overall Flexibility Fitness Category:

Overall Flexibility Fitness Category Table 8.5

Principles of Muscular Flexibility Prescription:

Principles of Muscular Flexibility Prescription Range of joint mobility can be increased through regular stretching A comprehensive stretching program should include all body parts and follow guidelines for development of flexibility Overload and specificity of training principles

Modes of Training:

Modes of Training Static (slow-sustained stretching) Passive stretching Ballistic stretching Dynamic stretching Controlled ballistic stretching Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching

Key Terms:

Key Terms Static stretching (slow-sustained stretching) Exercises in which muscles are lengthened gradually through a joint’s complete range of motion. Passive stretching Exercises performed with the aid of an external force applied by either another individual or an external apparatus.

Key Terms:

Key Terms Ballistic (dynamic) stretching Stretching exercises performed with jerky, rapid, and bouncy movements. Dynamic stretching Stretching exercises that require speed of movement, momentum, and active muscular effort to help increase the range of motion about a joint or group of joints.

Key Terms:

Key Terms Controlled ballistic stretching Exercises done with slow, short, gentle, and sustained movements. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation Mode of stretching that uses reflexes and neuromuscular principles to relax the muscles being stretched.

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation:

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is based on a “contract-and-relax” method and requires the assistance of another person Isometric contraction helps relax the muscle being stretched

(PNF) stretching technique:

(PNF) stretching technique Photos page 280

Physiological Response to Stretching:

Physiological Response to Stretching Two sensory organs (proprioceptors) protect muscles from injury during stretching Muscle spindles detect changes in muscle length The Golgi tendon organ prevents injury by limiting the amount of tension generated

Intensity:

Intensity Intensity is the degree of stretch when doing flexibility exercises All stretching should be done to slightly below the pain threshold As participants reach this point, they should try to relax the muscle being stretched

Repetitions:

Repetitions Repetitions are the number of times a given resistance is performed Generally, 4 or more repetitions per exercise should be done, holding the final position each time for 15 to 60 seconds

Frequency of Exercise:

Frequency of Exercise Flexibility exercises should be conducted 5 to 7 days per week Flexibility can be maintained with 2 or 3 sessions per week, doing 4 repetitions of 15 to 60 secs Regular stretching increases a person’s level of stretch tolerance

Guidelines for flexibility development:

Guidelines for flexibility development Figure 8.4

When to Stretch?:

When to Stretch? Warm-up is gentle stretching Not through entire range of motion Progressively increase muscle temperature Cool-down Higher temperature increases range of motion Prevents muscle soreness

Flexibility Exercises:

Flexibility Exercises To improve body flexibility, each major muscle group should be subjected to at least one stretching exercise Complete workout will last 15 to 30 minutes

Contraindicated Exercises:

Contraindicated Exercises Even safe exercises can be hazardous if they are performed incorrectly Some exercises may cause trauma and injury when executed repeatedly Pre-existing muscle or joint conditions can increase risk of harm during certain exercises

Contraindicated exercises:

Contraindicated exercises Figure 8.5

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain:

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain 60 to 80% of the population experiences back pain or injury Prevention and treatment through physical exercise are by far the best medicine

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain:

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain Causes of backache syndrome: Physical inactivity Poor postural habits and body mechanics Excessive body weight Psychological stress Smoking

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain:

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain Most common reason for low-back pain is physical inactivity (excessive sitting) Deterioration or weakening of abdominal and gluteal muscles along with tightening of the lower back muscles, brings about an unnatural forward tilt of the pelvis

Incorrect and correct pelvic alignment:

Incorrect and correct pelvic alignment Figure 8.6

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain:

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain Low-back pain frequently is associated with faulty posture and improper body mechanics Prolonged static postures Repetitive bending and pushing Twisting a loaded spine Prolonged sitting with little movement

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain:

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain A physician should be consulted if any of the following conditions are present: • Numbness in the legs • Trouble urinating • Leg weakness • Fever • Unintentional weight loss • Persistent severe pain even at rest

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain:

Preventing and Rehabilitating Low-Back Pain If there is no indication of disease or injury, spinal manipulation may provide pain relief Iyegar yoga in particular, has been shown to relieve chronic low-back pain Back pain is considered chronic if it persists longer than three months

Key Terms:

Key Terms Iyegar yoga Form of yoga that aims to develop flexibility, strength, balance, and stamina using props (belts, blocks, blankets, and chairs) to aid in the correct performance of asanas or yoga postures.

Your back and how to care for it.:

Your back and how to care for it. Figure 8.7 pages 285 and 286 Divide into sections

Effects of Posture:

Effects of Posture Posture is the relationship between different body parts Good posture enhances personal appearance, improves balance and endurance, protects against misalignment-related pains and aches, prevents falls, and enhances well-being

Effects of Posture:

Effects of Posture Poor posture : Risk factor for musculoskeletal problems of neck, shoulders, lower back Strains hips and knees Chronic low-back pain

Effects of Stress:

Effects of Stress The brain is “hardwired” to the back muscles –excessive stress causes muscles to contract Tightening can throw back out of alignment and constrict blood vessels to the back Stress increases release of hormones linked to injuries of muscles and tendons

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