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WHAT IS UNEMPLOYMENT Unemployment is a state of worklessness for a person fit and willing to work, it is a condition of involuntary and not voluntary idleness ‘a condition in which an individual is not in a state of remunerative occupation despite his desire to.’ Unemployment as defined by the International Labour Organization occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively looked for work within the past four weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force .

Types of unemployment:

Types of unemployment Unemployment are of the following types: Seasonal unemployment Agricultural unemployment Technological and frictional unemployment Industrial unemployment Cyclical unemployment Educational unemployment Temporary unemployment Voluntary unemployment Involuntary unemployment/under employment

Seasonal, Agricultural and Industrial unemployment:

Seasonal, Agricultural and Industrial unemployment Seasonal Unemployment : it is associated with agriculture. During the off season many labourers have to spend their time idly. In some industries like sugar industry , workers get jobs only for a certain period of the year. This type of unemployment makes the workers migratory. Agricultural Unemployment : the seasonal nature of agricultural work; the decay of cottage industries; lack of demand for home-made products etc are some of the causes for this type of unemployment. Industrial Unemployment : a large number of people from the rural areas migrate to cities to find jobs in factories, often they are not absorbed in these factories. Slow growth of industries; competition with foreign industries; unplanned industrialisation; defective industrial policies; labor strikes etc may also cause industrial unemployment

Technological, Frictional, Cyclical and Educational unemployment:

Technological, Frictional, Cyclical and Educational unemployment Technological unemployment: is caused mainly because of the introduction of labor saving machines. These machines reduce man power necessity, displacing workers. Frictional unemployment : sometimes in the technological field friction is caused due to an imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it. This friction does not allow the potentialities of the worker to be tapped.Thus though unemployed workers are there they cannot be employed because they do not fit the criteria for the work or they may not possess the required skills or qualifications. Cyclical unemployment: due to the trade cycles, booms, recessions and depressions are common in the business world. Such ups and downs affect the volume of unemployment. It increases when trade is bad and decreases when trade is good. During periods of depression workers lose jobs and no fresh job opportunities are available. Educational unemployment: there is a close link between the job opportunities and the system of education. Every year many young people graduate with degrees but there are not enough job opportunities for them. West bengal has the largest number of educated unemployed persons.

Temporary, Involuntary and Voluntary unemployment:

Temporary, Involuntary and Voluntary unemployment Temporary unemployment: young men and women after completing their education are made to wait before they get their first job, during this period they are unemployed. Sometimes people are unemployment in the interval between changing jobs. Voluntary unemployment: when the worker voluntarily withdraws himself from his job- this may happen because of a quarrel with the employer or because he may have other source of income etc. Involuntary employment / Under employment: the self employed working people are not working to their full capacity. People who are partially employed or are doing inferior jobs.


CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT The policy of free trade did not accelerate the process of industrialization in India and hence not enough employment opportunities generated. The unchecked growth of population The decline of traditional skills and the decay of small scale and cottage industries The low level of investment and the neglect of industrial sector could not help the process of creating job opportunities

Individual or Personal Factors of unemployment:

Individual or Personal Factors of unemployment 1) age factor : age limits choices of jobs. Too young and too old people are not eligible for most jobs. 2) vocational unfitness: many young lack proper understanding of their own capabilities, aptitudes, interests and are also unaware of the career options available to them. 3) illness/physical disabilities: due to illness or disabilities some remain partially employed or totally unemployed throughout their life. Illness induced by industrial conditions and the fatal accidents that often take place during the work render some unemployed.

External or Technological and Economic factors of unemployment:

External or Technological and Economic factors of unemployment Enormous increase in population Trade cycle : ups and downs forcing sick industries to close down rendering many workers unemployed. Fluctuations in international markets; heavy imposition of taxes/excise duties adversely affect the security of jobs of some people. Mechanisation/automation Strikes and lockouts : trade unionism—protests, processions , bandhs adversely affect the performance of an industry. In order to suppress labour strikes the management often declares lock outs. Due to strikes and lockouts production comes down and economic losses are incurred . Workers receive no wages during this period, some of them are thrown out by the management.

Other causes:

Other causes Unprepared ness to accept socially degrading jobs: some jobs like autorickshaw and taxi driving; working as salesmen; waiter’s work etc are considered socially degrading jobs by some young men and women and hence thay are unwilling to do these jobs. They hold on to their false prestige and often face the risk of unemployment Defects in our education system : there is no coordination between our country’s industrial growth; agricultural development and our education system. The education system does not prepare the young people to be self employed. Geographic immobility of the workers : in India workers lack the adventure spirit to move from one physical area to another to brighten their economic prospects. Theyeither cling on to their traditional occupations or are concentrated in one urban centre often without any job.

Evil Effects of unemployment:

Evil Effects of unemployment Personal Disorganisation: an unemployed person loses self respect; young persons who finish their education find it very painful to join the army of unemployed persons—their enthususasm and vigour dies down as days pass on; old and retired people who are still capable of working but unable to get suitable jobs suffer from bitterness, economic insecurity; it damages our physical mental and moral health—the unemployed person may not get sufficient food and medical assistance, anxieties and tensions affects the mental health.

Evil Effects of unemployment:

Evil Effects of unemployment Family disorganisation: causes physical hardships and mental agony to the family of the unemployed. In absence of regular income family falls back on savings and soon that gets exhausted too. Valuable articles, ornaments are sold and mortgaged. Families may suffer starvation. Physical health of family gets damaged due to want of nutritious food and proper and timely medical care. Unemployment upsets the balance of family life—in desperation education of the children may be stopped and they may be forced to become employed, the wife too may be forced to look for employment. The family is so stressed all the time that quarrels and bickerings become common place. Parents are compelled to struggle and hence have no time to give social training to the children. As a result children may develop delinquent tendencies.

Evil Effects of unemployment:

Evil Effects of unemployment Social disorganisation: people may resort to anti-social activities. Tempts and provocates individuals to resort to begging, to indulge in criminal activities, to fall prey to gambling, drug addiction etc. pollutes economic and political fields—non corrupt people become dishonest. Irreparable economic losses: unemployed persons become parasites on society and become a big economic burden. The failure to provide jobs to all those willing to work brings down economic production. Unemployment adverely affects the standard of living of the people , in the long run this would bring down the labor efficiency of the people.


1) population control: population has to be checked. Family planning programmes has to be made popular. 2) promoting economic development: equal attention must be paid to agriculture and industry. Promoting agricultural development: employment oppurtunities in agricultural sector may be increased through construction of major and minor irrigation projects, expansion and development of plantations, development of forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries. Cottage and household industries associated with agriculture must be encouraged. Commercial crops should be encouraged. REMEDIAL MEASURES


REMEDIAL MEASURES b) industrial development: proper balance between agriculture and industry so that industry cannot destroy agriculture. The unchecked process of mechanization and the domination of MNC’s are adversely affecting the creation of new job opportunities. The process of economic liberalization has helped the MNC’s to dominate indigenous industries


REMEDIAL MEASURES 3) Education reforms: education must be made job-oriented and not degree oriented . It must cater to both urban and rural requirements. Primary education must be made more effective and popular. Practical training must be provided to the youth to help them pursue some vocation, proper guidance and information must be provided to them regarding new job opportunities .


REMEDIAL MEASURES 4) FIVE YEAR PLANS: all the five year plan have focused on generating employment opportunities. Priority given to agricultural growth and industrial development. 5) other schemes and programmes: A)IRDP –Integrated Rural Development Programme B) NREP –National Rural Employment Programme C) JRY– Jawahar Rozgar Yojana D) SEPUP—Self-Employment Programmes for the Urban Poor


RIGHT TO WORK In order to ensure that the government pays adequate attention to the problem of unemployment the right to work has been included as a fundamental right in the indian constitution. This right entitles every citizen to a job. Every adult citizen has the right to do physical labor for atleast 8 hours/day at the minimum wages. But however it does not indicate that every citizen has the right to a government job or a job of his choice. Promising a job to every citizen is a difficult task and requires creating large scale rural employment.




DEFINITION OF BEGGAR AND BEGGARY A beggar is one who asks for alms or charity or performs such actions which derive sympathy from others and who give something in return. Beggary means begging on roads or on door to door standing or entering a dwelling , house or a place of business or otherwise for the maintenance of himself and his dependants.


TYPES OF BEGGARS G.R. Madan has mentioned the following types of beggars: 1) able-bodied adult beggars: some adult women and men resort to begging either because they are unemployed or underemployed. Some lazy adults who are not prepared to work are tempted to resort to begging 2) able-bodied child beggars: children whose parents are incapable to earn; children who are forced to beg because of family disorganization; children who are kidnapped and made to earn a living out of begging; children from orphanages are forced to beg because of lack of funds. 3) hereditary beggars: due to the obligations of customs some people beg. They consider begging as their hereditary profession. Some tribal communities like Nats, Sains etc


TYPES OF BEGGARS 4) sick/diseased beggars: these people are suffering from chronic and incurable diseases like leprosy , T.B. ,skin diseases etc 5) physically disabled: these include the blind, deaf, dumb and crippled 6) mentally retarded 7) old and incapable people: they are incapable to work and earn a living 8) religious mendicants: some people beg with religious fervor because they believe that begging has the sanction of religion. Some sadhus beg and run big or small temples, some sadhus and fakirs wander from place to place and beg while some others beg under the garb of a sadhu , sanyasi or fakir.


CAUSES OF BEGGARY The problem of beggary is not due to the operation of a single cause. It is the outcome of a number of factors: Economic Social Biological Religious


ECONOMIC CAUSES POVERTY: Basic needs are not fulfilled, non availability of employment and no means to support themselves. LACK OF EMPLOYMENT/ UNDER EMPLOYMENT: unemployment is anothert cause of beggary. Present economy has not been able to provide adequate employment. Agricultural employment is limited and those migrating to urban areas also do not get jobs. Many laborers to supplement their income have resorted to begging. BEGGARY AS A PROFITABLE BUSINESS: beggary has been made a profession as it is easy gain. In india begging is a profitable and easy means of earning daily bread.


SOCIAL CAUSES FAMILY DISORGANISATION: family disturbances like death of parents, death of breadwinner, desertion by husband..helpless family members forced to beg. LACK OF PARENTAL CONTROL: because of hard living conditions poor parents have no time to spend with their children, these neglected children get associated with anti socials and often resort to begging and to committing petty crimes. COMMUNITY DISORGANISATION AND BREAK UP OF JOINT FAMILY: previously the poor, needy and disabled people were given protection and security by dharmashalas, mathas, temples, joint families, village panchayats, caste councils etc. these institutions have become either weak or defunct or disorganised and all those helpless people resort to begging FAVOURABLE SOCIAL CUSTOMS: some tribals beg as a customary obligation.


BIOLOGICAL CAUSES SICKNESS OR DISEASE: beggars suffering from incurable diseases suffer a life of agony . PHYSICAL AND MENTAL DEFICIENCY: physical defects either acquired or inherited leave people helpless and disabled. For these people begging is the only resort. Some people suffer from mental illness and they resort to begging as they cannot earn a living by themselves. OLD AGE: old age makes people physically weak and some old people have nobody to support them and hence are forced to resort to begging.


RELIGIOUS CAUSES RELIGIOUS MENDICANCY: some religious mendicants beg as part of their religion while some others just pretend to be mendicants. INDISCRIMINATE ALMS-GIVING: in India people give alms to beggars indiscrimately either because of their religious beliefs or belief in customs. Most of the beggars remain in that profession as they earn quite an amount begging. Temples, mosques or dharmashalas also give alms to beggars encouraging beggary.


REMEDIAL MEASURES LEGISLATION TO PREVENT BEGGARY: A legislation to prohibit beggary in any form is essential. Begging has been declared as an offence in economically advanced countries. In india too there was a European Vagrancy Act in 1874. Indian Railways Act passed in 1941 prohibits begging in railway premises and trains. Several local laws on begging have come into being and they are more or less uniform—prohibit beggars with fine, imprisonment or both. Comprehensive legislation on all-India basis is essential.


REMEDIAL MEASURES ESTABLISHMENT OF PROTECTIVE HOMES AND REHABILITATION CENTRES: protective homes for beggars exist in most states but they do not have enough capacity and lack infrastructure. Compulsory detention of beggars in jails and protective homes help reduce their number. At present detained beggars are kept for three years. Those detained must be given proper treatment and trained, some entertainment can also be provided.


REMEDIAL MEASURES PROVISION OF WORKHOUSES: special attention must be given to able-bodied beggars—some training must be given to them and jobs must be ensured for them. SEPARATE HOUSES: separate houses for men women children old and the disabled must be there. They should be delegated jobs depending upon their abilities. Women should be trained in knitting, embroidery etc. COMPREHENSIVE SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES: these measures essential to prevent unemployed people, the old and the infirm from begging. RECEPTION CENTRES: should be set up in each state and these centres must make necessary arrangements to give appropriate treatment to the beggars.


REMEDIAL MEASURES COUNTERACTING THE INFLUENCE OF POVERTY: at the root of begging is poverty and attempts must be made to remove poverty and this can be done through proper planning and through various developmental schemes. MOBILISING PUBLIC OPINION: necessary to mobilize public opinion against indiscriminate alms giving through both governmental and private efforts. Traditional attitudes towards beggars must be changed and people should be made to develop a rationalistic outlook towards the problem. SCHEME TO COLLECT DONATION: common people donate a large sum of money to beggars accentuating the problem of beggary, this money could be collected and utilized for the rehabilitation of beggars through some centralized all-India scheme with governmental sanction.

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