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Premium member Presentation Transcript Unit 3 Review Human Growth and Development: Unit 3 Review Human Growth and Development Chapters 9 - 12Puberty: Precocious Puberty: Before age 8 Normal Puberty: Ages 8-14 2/3 Genetic Girls before boys Malnutrition delays puberty, high BMI leads to earlier puberty PubertyMenarche and Spermarche: Menarche: First menstruation in girls; ovulation has begun and pregnancy is possible Spermarche : First ejaculation in boys; signifies sperm production Menarche and SpermarcheEarly vs. Late Maturation: Early-Maturing Girls Self-esteem, body image, depression, sexual activity Early-Maturing Boys Aggression, lawbreaking, alcohol abuse, sexual activity, success Late-Maturing Boys Anxious, depressed, afraid of sexual activity Early vs. Late MaturationSteps of the Growth Spurt: Steps of the Growth Spurt 1 2 andPrimary and Secondary Sex Characteristics: Primary Sex Characteristics Parts of the body involved in sexual reproduction Secondary Sex Characteristics Physical traits that indicate sexual maturity but are not involved in sexual reproduction Primary and Secondary Sex CharacteristicsAdolescent Nutrition: Adolescent NutritionEating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa Self-starvation, under-eating, over-exercising Bulimia Nervosa Binge eating and purging Eating DisordersBody Image: Body Image Skinny MuscularEgocentrism and Imaginary Audience: Egocentrism The view that one is noticed by everyone Imaginary Audience An adolescent’s belief that other people are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior. Egocentrism and Imaginary AudienceInvincibility Fable and Personal Fable: Invincibility Fable The belief that one cannot be harmed by things that would hurt a normal person Personal Fable An adolescent’s belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique Invincibility Fable and Personal FablePiaget: Formal Operational Thought: Abstract Thinking What is possible? What is ideal? Hypothetical Reasoning Piaget: Formal Operational ThoughtErikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion: Adolescents establish sexual, political, and vocational identities or develop confusion about what roles to play. Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion4 Identity Statuses: 4 Identity Statuses Identity Achievement Identity Foreclosure Identity Diffusion Identity Moratorium4 Areas of Identity Acheivement: Gender Identity Sexual Orientation Identity Vocational Identity Political/Ethnic Identity 4 Areas of Identity AcheivementParental Monitoring & Psychological Control: Parental Monitoring Parent’s ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom. Psychological Control A disciplinary technique in which parents make a child feel guilty and impose gratefulness by threatening to withdraw love and support. Parental Monitoring & Psychological ControlClique vs. Crowd: Clique vs. CrowdPeer Pressure and Selection: Peer Pressure Pressure to conform to one’s friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude Selection Teenagers select friends whose values and interests they share, abandoning friends who follow other paths. Peer Pressure and SelectionSex Education vs. Abstinence-Only Education: Sex Education Some programs reduce teen pregnancy and STIs, especially programs that start before high school Abstinence-Only Education Proven to have little effect Sex Education vs. Abstinence-Only EducationTeen Pregnancy & STIs: Teen pregnancy rates are declining The teen pregnancy rate is higher in the U.S. than in any other developed nation because American teenagers use less contraception. Young persons ages 15-24 constitute 50% of all STIs Syphilis, Gonorrhea, and Chlamydia are the most common STIs Teen Pregnancy & STIsDepression in Adolescence: Clinical Depression Feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last two weeks or more. 1 in 5 teenage girls suffer from clinical depression More girls suffer from clinical depression than boys Rumination The process of repeatedly thinking and talking about distressing topics which can lead to depression Depression in AdolescenceAdolescent Suicide: Adolescent Suicide Suicidal Ideation Thinking about suicide; very common during adolescence Gender Differences Boys are four times more likely than girls to commit suicide Boys use more lethal means than girls (guns vs. pills or hanging) Girls tend to let their friends and family know that they are depressed but boys do notAnger and Aggression: Juvenile Delinquent A person under the age of 18 who breaks the law Adolescence-Limited Offender Criminal activity stops by age 21 Life-Course-Persistent Offender Criminal activity typically begins in early adolescence and continues throughout life; career criminal Anger and AggressionAdolescent Drug Use: Widespread between ages 10-25 Adolescent boys generally use more drugs and use them more often than girls Alcohol is the preferred drug of choice during adolescence Adolescent Drug UseEmerging Adulthood: Occurs between the ages of 18 – 25 Traditionally a time of hard physical work and child bearing Marks the beginning of Erikson’s Intimacy vs. Isolation stage of development Emerging AdulthoodHomeostasis: The adjustment of the body’s systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium. HomeostasisSex, Reproduction and STIs in Emerging Adulthood: The average woman in her early 20’s can become pregnant within three months of frequent sexual activity without contraception 50% of emerging adults have had at least one STI Serial monogamy limits sexual activity to one partner Sex, Reproduction and STIs in Emerging AdulthoodReplacement Rate: The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain a nation’s (or the world’s) population with no increases or decreases. The current replacement rate is approximately 2.1 births per woman Replacement RateEdgework: Occupations, recreational activities, or other ventures that involve a degree of risk or danger EdgeworkDrug Abuse vs. Drug Addiction: Drug Abuse The ingestion of a drug in a quantity or manner that is harmful to physical, cognitive, or psychosocial wellbeing Drug Addiction When the absence of a particular drug causes a craving to satisfy a psychological or physiological need Drug Abuse vs. Drug AddictionPsychopathology in Emerging Adulthood: During emerging adulthood, adults worldwide are more likely to suffer from a substance abuse disorder, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, or schizophrenia than at any later time of development Schizophrenia = delusions and hallucinations Psychopathology in Emerging AdulthoodErikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation: Friends Family Relationships Erikson: Intimacy vs. IsolationCohabitation: Living with an unrelated person – typically a romantic partner – to whom one is not married Most young adults in the United States, England, and northern Europe live together rather than getting married before age 25 Domestic violence and excessive drinking are more likely to occur among young adults who cohabit than among those who marry. Married couples are more likely to divorce if they have lived together before marriage CohabitationSenescence: A gradual physical decline that is related to aging and during which the body becomes less strong and efficient. Vision and hearing problems are common. Changes in Appearance Women age more slowly than men Changes in appearance are influenced by lifestyle choices Changes in skin, hair, and fat distribution are inevitable Wrinkles at 60 are common SenescenceDecline in Reproduction: Sexual arousal occurs more slowly with age During adulthood sexual-reproduction becomes less likely 15% of U.S. couples are infertile, partly because many postpone childbearing When couples in their 40’s try to conceive, about 50% are infertile and the other 50% risk various complications Decline in ReproductionTreating Infertility: In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) 1. Ova are surgically removed 2. Ova are fertilized by sperm in a laboratory 3. Fertilized cells inserted into woman’s uterus Treating InfertilityMenopause vs. Andropause: Menopause in Women The time in middle age (around age 50) when a woman’s menstrual periods cease completely and the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops considerably. Andropause in Men A drop in testosterone levels in older men, which normally results in reduced sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass. Menopause vs. AndropauseDrug Use in Adulthood : Moderate Consumption of Alcohol (2 drinks a day or less) Increases longevity and “good” cholesterol Decreases coronary heart disease, strokes, blood pressure, and “bad” cholesterol Drug Use in AdulthoodMortality vs. Morbidity: Mortality (Death) Mortality refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a given population. Morbidity (Disease) Morbidity refers to the rate of diseases in a given population. Mortality vs. MorbidityDisability vs. Vitality: Disability Long-term difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of some type of physical, emotional, or mental condition. Vitality A measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic an individual feels. Disability vs. VitalitySocioeconomic Status (SES) and Health: A high SES is a major safeguard of health, vitality, and reduced rates of chronic illness and disability Well-educated, financially secure adults live longer than their peers Women typically live five years longer than men Socioeconomic Status (SES) and HealthFluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence: Fluid Intelligence The type of basic intelligence that makes learning quick and thorough; decreases during adulthood Crystallized Intelligence Intellectual abilities that reflect accumulated learning; increases with age Fluid vs. Crystallized IntelligenceGardner’s 9 Intelligences: Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Naturalistic Social Understanding/Interpersonal Intelligence Self-Understanding/Intrapersonal Intelligence Existential Intelligence Gardner’s 9 Intelligences You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.