National Issues Forum_Master & Wielding Convention on Biological Diver

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Chad Husby, Ph.D. Montgomery Botanical Center Practical plant exploration and exchange in the 21 st century The Benefits of Sharing

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Intro -- PLANT EXPLORATION Are there unrestricted plants post-CBD? Absolutely! Most of them! Montgomery Botanical center has collected intensively with proper permits, but few collections are restricted by country of origin USDA-NPGS only wild collects in countries that don’t restrict

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Do some countries place onerous restrictions on collected plants? Certainly Complying with national CBD laws can be painful for a plant lover: * Socotra collections at RBGE * My Jamaica Equisetum collection at university

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Yes! Are any countries reducing access restrictions? Brazil: ~Making collaboration an export possible again ~MBC palm expedition 2014 with the Instituto Plantarum (first in 17 years): no restrictions on collected germplasm

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Some, like the USDA-NPGS and MBC choose to continue to allow free sharing of unrestricted plants How do gardens approach plant sharing post 1993? Others are effectively becoming “ Plant Prisons ” (collectively forming a “ Garden Gulag ”), with unrestricted plants only put on “ Plant Parole ” with severe, garden-imposed contractual restrictions and legal obligations

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Has continued free exchange of unrestricted plants hurt US public gardens, or undermined international collaboration in the CBD era? Apparently not

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Must public gardens (inside or outside the US) become plant prisons in the CBD/Nagoya era? Not yet Hopefully never!

Benefit sharing: Plant sharing:

Benefit sharing: Plant sharing Gardens have true botanical and horticultural expertise  these benefits we can share effectively Ex situ conservation is an increasingly valuable benefit – emphasized by NPGS  No cost to country of origin, but costly for public gardens Ex situ conservation only works when plants are propagated and shared: “The best way to keep a plant is to give it away”

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IUCN: 87 plant species documented as extinct 31 extinct in the wild, but survive in cultivation  Without cultivation, extinction would be 35.6% higher  Urgency : 21.5 % of plant species threatened with extinction (Kew, 2010) Gardens save plants from extinction

Cosmos atrosanguineus Collected initially in the wild in Mexico (1860’s), but never again:

Cosmos atrosanguineus Collected initially in the wild in Mexico (1860’s), but never again http://www.flickr.com/photos/34439678@N08/3791388479/sizes/l/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/w-tommerdich/3924690429/sizes/o/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/succulentisima/6003156553/sizes/l/in/photostream/

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Euphorbia mayurnathii ~Endemic to Palghat Gap, India ~Extinct in the wild sinc e 1940

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What about commercial horticulture? Free horticultural exchange, usually encouraged by countries of origin Generating benefits from a wide range of biodiversity Creating a growing pool of unrestricted plants to enjoy

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MBC Seedbank = broad distribution of unrestricted seeds and plants First priority : Botanical gardens, education and non-commercial research

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SUPPLY DEMAND Sharing to relieve pressure on wild populations: Microcycas calocoma Kay, Strader, Murphy, Nghiem-Phu, Calonje & Griffith, 2011.

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Benefit sharing: Sharing plants (Dominican Republic)

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Plants for local propagation

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Benefit sharing: Horticultural expertise Plumeria magna at MBC

Clavija domingensis: 3 gardens and 3 countries working together for conservation and horticulture:

Clavija domingensis: 3 gardens and 3 countries working together for conservation and horticulture

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Benefit sharing: Collaboration Enhance in-country biodiversity knolwedge and conservation

Benefit sharing: Joint publications :

Calonje , Stevenson, Calonje , Ramos and Lindstrom, 2010 Benefit sharing: Joint publications New species: Zamia pyrophylla

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New species: Zamia decumbens Calonje et al., 2009

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Guide (2014) Download from bgci.org or montgomerybotanical.org Benefit sharing: Improving ex-situ conservation practices and sharing the knowledge

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T he joy and wonder of plant discovery, propagation and sharing are still alive.

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*Plant exploration is essential *We need to share the plants and work together to save them before it is too late.

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