Art & Exhibitions_Bringing the Magic of Asian Chrysanthemum Techniques

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BRINGING THE MAGIC OF ASIAN CHRYSANTHEMUM TECHNIQUES TO AMERICAN PUBLIC GARDENS:

BRINGING THE MAGIC OF ASIAN CHRYSANTHEMUM TECHNIQUES TO AMERICAN PUBLIC GARDENS Jim Harbage June 25, 2014

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Chrysanthemums at Longwood Gardens Timeline Present in the Conservatories since opening in 1921 Longwood Chrysanthemum Festival evolved 1923-present John Creech – USDA plant exploration in Japan in 1956 1921 - Cascades and exhibition types 1956 - 118 new cv.s from Japan 1961 – baskets, columns, curtains 1960’s - training into shapes (table, chairs, animals) 1969 - chandelier, 1971 - basket mobile 1972 – standards (tree forms) 1976-1994 – themed displays (Alice in Wonderland) 1994 (2006) – 1000 blooms, shields, arches, spirals 2011 – Chinese pagoda towers

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Chrysanthemums - Background History B.C. 500 - Cultivation in China, for medicine 300 - Cultivated in China as an ornamental A.D. 366 - Seeds introduced into Japan 700’s - plants introduced into Japan 910 - Became the national flower of Japan 1789 - First successful cultivation in Europe 1798 - First introduced to America 1826 - First breeding outside the Orient

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Kiku

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Chrysanthemums at Longwood

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Chrysanthemums at Longwood – The Team Design Choreograph Color Height Texture Develop new forms Plan location of elements Create theme Plan companion plants

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Chrysanthemums at Longwood – The Team Production Work emphasis is seasonal Work is repetitive and exacting Some methods are unique Long production times

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Chrysanthemums at Longwood – The Team Installation and Maintenance Challenging sizes/shapes Heav y Many aerial pieces High water demand Pest issues

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Chrysanthemums at Longwood – Tools of the Trade Growing spaces (environmental control) Plant performance is temperature dependent Cultivar requirements/availability Bloom time Day-length response Stock plant management Trueness-to-type Virus control Rejuvenation Fabrication – structures for training/displaying Display space

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Chrysanthemums – Disappearing Art Form Participation is generational Labor intensive Long training requirement Low wage value Festivals are shrinking Number of supply nurseries decreasing

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Chrysanthemums – Specialty Cultivar Supply Fragile supply chain Single supply nursery Collections limited Inventories are not common knowledge Limited inter-institutional distribution

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Collaborations Collaboration Activities Public Gardens - US US Botanical Garden Phipps Conservatory Brookside Botanical Garden Chicago Botanic Garden New York Botanical Garden Elizabeth Gardner Museum and Garden Bellingrath Gardens and Home Smith College Lyman Conservatory Lauritzen Garden’s Omaha Callaway Gardens Callaway Gardens Hillwood Estate Museum and Gardens Highland Botanical Park Marjorie McNeely Conservatory Arnold Arboretum Fredrik Meijer Gardens Vander Veer Botanical Park Penn State Campus Arboretum Baltimore Conservatory

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Chrysanthemums – Online information Youtube Thousand Bloom Chrysanthemum 2011 – Slideshow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9bz8iCH3XU Longwood Grows its Largest Thousand Bloom Chrysanthemum Ever http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXjqTFi5JVU Grafting Chrysanthemums http :// www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtRXr7n45jc Blogs 100 Colors Chrysanthemum Blog 2012 1000 Bloom Chrysanthemum Blog 2011 Cascade Chrysanthemum Blog 2010 Single Stem Chrysanthemum Blog 2011 The Art of Grafting Chrysanthemums Blog 2012

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jharbage@longwoodgardens.org

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