Gardens as Conservation Partners

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Gardens as Conservation Partners at the Urban-Wild Interface:

Gardens as Conservation Partners in the Urban-Wild Interface APGA 2013 Phoenix, AZ Gardens as Conservation Partners at the Urban-Wild Interface APGA 2013 Phoenix, AX

The Role of Public Gardens in the Conservation, Management and Interpretation of Natural Areas: 2013:

The Role of Public Gardens in the Conservation, Management and Interpretation of Natural Areas: 2013 Report on a Survey by the APGA Conservation Committee for the 2013 Garden Evolution Conference Dr. David A. Galbraith, President, Canadian Botanical Conservation Network, and Head of Science, Royal Botanical Gardens, ON, Canada, and Dr. Kathryn Kennedy, Executive Director and President, Center for Plant Conservation, St. Louis, MO, USA


Objectives Survey of 2003 explored the direct contributions of public gardens to protecting, conserving and interpreting natural areas – time for an update Add additional sources of information to expand understanding of natural areas at public gardens in the USA and Canada Complete survey and analysis; present findings at APGA 2013 and in print form (The Public Garden?)


Procedure 2003: Committee designed questionnaire Distributed by email in March to 430 U.S. institutions, 22 Canadian Reminders in April and May, Telephone follow-up in June 2013 to date: Survey slightly redesigned, put on-line: Email notifications sent out widely in April Still available for further replies! BGCI’s “Garden Search” database accessed for additional information Ongoing: Additional work to contact institutions; planned publication

Sample Questions:

Sample Questions Does your institution own or manage a natural area? How much of this is terrestrial habitat? How much is aquatic? Do you undertake management of the natural areas, or species-specific conservation programs? Are they dedicated nature preserves, protected by government designation? Are there current species inventories? Are these areas included in plant conservation programs? How many staff are dedicated to the natural areas? Are the natural areas open to visitors? How many visitors per year access the natural areas? Do you provide natural areas interpretation for visitors? Does your institution derive any revenue directly from the natural areas ?

Survey Responses:

Survey Responses Canada International USA Total 2003 Invitations 22 430 452 2003 Survey Responses 18 (82%) (3) 83 (19%) 101 (22%) 2003 Overall Information 12 3 126 141 2013 Survey Responses 15 2 37 54 Replies in Both Years 3 1 14 18 2013 BGCI Data 20 0 163 183 Replies in a ll Three Sources 2 0 7 9 Total Individual Institutions 34 3 266 303

Numbers of Public Gardens Reporting Natural Areas:

Numbers of Public Gardens Reporting Natural Areas USA Canada International Total All Replies 266 34 3 304 Nat. Areas 209 25 3 237 Aquatic 80 13 2 95 Terrestrial 152 22 2 176 BGCI 133 16 - 149

Summed Reported Acreages of Natural Areas:

Summed Reported Acreages of Natural Areas USA Canada International USA & Canada Total All Property 84,177 (136) 7,667 (18) - 91,844 (154) Nat ural Areas, acres (n) 84,371 (152) 4,321 (22) 6,460 (2) 88,692 (174) Natural Areas, mi 2 131.8 6.75 10.1 138.6 Aquatic areas, acres 2,426 (80) 1,160 (13) 1,541 (2) 3,586 (93) Terrestrial areas, acres 22,438 (102) 2,891(16) 6,477 (3) 25,329 (118)

All Reported Acreages of Natural Areas, steps of 200 acres:

All Reported Acreages of Natural Areas, steps of 200 acres Blue = USA Red = Canada Acres (up to)

Top 10 Largest Natural Areas from Combined Data:

Top 10 Largest Natural Areas from Combined Data Institution Name Location 2003 2013 BGCI Natural Areas % of Total Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest KY, USA a a 14,000 15.7% Callaway GA, USA a 11,000 12.4% Brookgreen Gardens SC, USA a 9,000 10.1% Hodges Gardens LA, USA a 4,700 5.3% Holden Arboretum IL, USA a a a 3,200 3.6% Fellows Riverside Gardens OH, USA a a 3,000 3.4% Cornell Plantations NY, USA a 2,930 3.3% Royal Botanical Gardens ON, CA a a a 2,400 2.7% Shaw Nature Reserve (various areas reported) MO, USA a a 2,400 2.7% Brandywine Conservancy PA, USA a 2,282 2.6% Sum (acres) 54,912 61.7% Sum ( sq mi) 85.8 Utrecht University Botanic Gardens , Gabon a 6,160

BGCI Garden Search Database: Records of Institutions with Natural Areas:

BGCI Garden Search Database: Records of Institutions with Natural Areas World-Wide USA Canada Total Gardens 3,115 757 103 With Natural Areas 380 (12%) 134 (17.7%) 16 (15.5%) Reporting NA Size - 79 12 Range (acres) - 2.5 - 3,002 2.5 - 2,718 Average (acres) - 285 276 Total Area (acres) - 22,477 3,314

Are These Natural Areas Well Documented and Managed?:

Are These Natural Areas Well Documented and Managed? USA 2003 Can. 2003 Total 2003 USA 2013 Can. 2013 Total 2013 Holding Rare or Important Habitats? 16/46 6/14 22/60 22/37 7/15 29/52 Holding At-Risk Species ? 18/46 5/14 23/60 18/37 5/15 23/52 Numbers of Species at Risk 36 48 83 - - -

Level of Protection (acres or numbers) (Not all 2003 respondents indicated):

Level of Protection (acres or numbers) (Not all 2003 respondents indicated) USA 2003 Canada 2003 Total 2003 USA 2013 Canada 2013 Total 2013 Formal Preserve 10,964 500 34,713 13/37 3/15 15/52 Conservation Easement 1,355 0 1,355 9/37 0/15 9/52 Other (research area) 240 82 322 - - - None 1,433 30 1,463 13/37 5/15 18/52

Natural Areas Documentation and Management:

Natural Areas Documentation and Management USA 2003 Can. 2003 Total 2003 USA 2013 Can. 2013 Total 2013 Active Management 46/83 7/18 53/101 (53%) 29/37 7/15 36/52 (69%) Little/No Management 19/83 4/18 23/101 (23%) 19/37 8/15 27/52 (52%) Are Species of Concern Included in Recovery/Conservation Plans? 3/18 3/5 6/23 21/37 6/15 27/52 Are There Written Habitat Management Plans? 18/46 3/14 21/60 15/37 6/15 21/52 Have Inventories been done? 34/46 9/14 43/60 (72%) 32/37 10/15 42/52 (81%)

Visitor Access and Interpretation:

Visitor Access and Interpretation USA 2003 Can. 2003 Total 2003 USA 2013 Can. 2013 Total 2013 Are Natural Areas open to Visitors? 29/46 5/14 34/60 (57%) 26/37 10/15 36/52 (69%) Annual Visitors to Natural Areas (thousands) 630/59 369/5 999/64 1,694/22 315/8 2,010/30 Are Natural Areas Interpreted for Visitors? 26/46 8/14 34/60 (56%) 24/37 9/15 33/52 (63%)

Visitor Engagement in Conservation:

Visitor Engagement in Conservation USA 2003 Can. 2003 Total 2003 USA 2013 Can. 2013 Total 2013 Are Institutions Actively Promoting the Natural Areas? 9/28 5/11 14/39 - - - Do Institutions Perceive Natural Areas Broaden the Audience Visiting? 29/33 3/10 32/43 30/37 10/15 40/52 Have Institutions Documented Visitor Interest and User Groups? 5% - - - For Follow-up this summer For Follow-up this summer


Summary 2003 Response Rate - 22%; interim responses in 2013 to on-line survey: not yet comparable. Among 237 institutions reporting natural areas, a total of 88,990 acres are protected (139 square miles); 10 largest contribute 60% of total Approximately one in six (17%) of botanical gardens and arboreta in North America own a natural area, containing significant habitats and at least 83 species of concern (likely more) A bout half are governed by written recovery plans or habitat management plans; inventories on nearly 80% (both up from 2003!) >2 million visitors view these areas among 30 returns in 2013; and 60% have interpretation available (both up from 2003!) Natural areas are perceived as broadening the botanical garden experience in about 80% of reports in 2013 (up from 75% in 2003) 63% of gardens interpret natural areas in 2013 (up from 57% in 2003)

Thank you for your attention!:

Thank you for your attention! And thanks to: All Survey Participants in both 2003 and 2013 APGA Plant Conservation Professional Section for work drafting the initial 2003 survey and 2013 update The Center for Plant Conservation for distributing email and compiling results for the U.S.A. in 2003 and 2013, and to CPC volunteers and interns for follow up telephone work. Canadian Botanical Conservation Network for access to the CBCN-L List-serve; Royal Botanical Gardens for providing the SurveyMonkey facility for the 2013 survey BGCI for its GardenSearch Database

Author’s Addresses:

Author’s Addresses Dr. David A. Galbraith Head of Science Royal Botanical Gardens 680 Plains Road West Burlington, ON L7T 4H4 Canada Dr. Kathryn Kennedy President Center for Plant Conservation P.O . Box 299 St. Louis, MO 63166-0299 USA

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New. Every Day.

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Location: Northeast Ohio, Glaciated Allegheny Plateau, Lake Erie watershed, Beech-Maple hardwood forests.

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Wood Phlox Sharp-lobed Hepatica Holden’s Mixed Mesophytic forests Spring Beauty Violets Cut-Leaved Toothwort Beech Tuliptree Maples Oaks Black Cherry Sassafras other deciduous Hemlock

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Changing Forest Cover 1937 2007

Natural Areas:

Natural Areas Carver’s Pond Little Mountain Stebbins Gulch

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3,250 acres of natural areas 16 conservation easements (~1600 acres) Natural Areas Manager, Conservation Biologist and Seasonal Employees 24 different vegetation communities 150 unique management units 38 Heritage plant species (State Endangered, Threatened, Potentially Threatened or Presumed Extirpated) ~70 invasive plant species, ~30 that are intensively managed Unique habitats such as Stebbins Gulch and Little Mountain Holden’s Natural Areas

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CONSERVE Biodiversity

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National Natural Landmarks Program "Encourage and support the voluntary conservation of sites that illustrate the nation's geological and biological history, and to strengthen the public's appreciation of America's natural heritage."

Chagrin River:

Chagrin River State designated “Scenic River”.

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Carex aurea

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Requires controlling/mitigating threats: photo by Frank Vincentz; Garlic Mustard - Invasive plants - Deer overabundance photo by Brian Parsons - Non-native earthworms Acid rain (& other pollution) - and… Requires controlling/mitigating threats: Healthy forests at Holden

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Garlic Mustard control

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Forest Edge Restoration 30+ miles of forest edge (49,500 meters) Edge effect – from 40 meters (Matlack, 1994) up to 91 meters into forest (Rosenberg et al., 2003) 489 - 1,113 acres affected (14 - 32% of Holden) Matlack, G. R., 1994. Vegetation dynamics of the forest edge – trends in space and successional time. Journal of Ecology. 82, 113-123. Rosenberg, K.V., R.S. Hames, R.W. Rohrbaugh, Jr., S.E. Barker Swarthout, J.D. Lowe and A.A. Dhondt. 2003. A Land Manager’s Guide to Improving Habitat for Forest Thrushes. The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Ithaca, New York. 29 pp.

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PVC Herbicide Applicator Inexpensive ($12-15) vs Nalgene or paint brush Reduces contact with herbicide Less waste due to drips Travels better Applicator tip: sponge, foam, felted wool, Goodwill wool sweater

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Holden GIS Database Web Interface Smart Phone Embracing Technology - Smart phones in the field

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The Holden Arboretum and Conservation Easements


A CONSERVATION EASEMENT : restricts the owner’s use of property in specified ways. designates the holder of the easement with enforcement responsibilities. Its purpose is to protect the natural, scenic, or historic values of the property. The owner retains title to the property. It is granted in perpetuity. It may be a charitable deduction.

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Little Mountain: Hemlock-Hardwood- White Pine forest Red Trillium photo by Haans Petruschke Witch-hazel Spicebush Canada Mayflower Partridgeberry Sarsaparilla Starflower Red Maple Yellow Birch Tuliptree Black Cherry Sassafras Oaks

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Tsuga canadensis on Little Mountain

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The Holden Arboretum and Conservation Easements

Potential for invasions:

Established in 1931 Current size: 3,600 acres 3,250 natural area acres Woody Plant Collection 14,711 accessioned woody plants 6,026 different taxa 2,199 species 3,273 cultivars 2,212 hybrids Potential for invasions

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Cypripedium reginae

Holden's conservation efforts at the urban/rural fringe: :

Holden's conservation efforts at the urban/rural fringe: 1. Manage Holden's natural areas and collections to reduce invasives and promote biodiversity. 2. Use carefully negotiated conservation easements to buffer Holden property. 3. Promote responsible use of landscape plants and management of private property in region.

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Questions? photo by Haans Petruschke New. Every Day.

Connect to Protect Network:

Connect to Protect Network Joyce Maschinski Conservation Ecologist

Most of South Florida was not…:

Most of South Florida was not…

Globally Endangered Ecosystem Pine Rocklands High diversity and endemism:

Globally Endangered Ecosystem Pine Rocklands High diversity and endemism Over 400 native plant species: 31 endemic, 5 federally endangered, 5 candidates for listing

Our objectives :

Our objectives Objective 1) Create corridors and stepping stone gardens between pine rockland natural areas. Objective 2) Increase the use of native pine rockland plants in private and public landscapes. Objective 3) Restore health of existing pine rocklands and their rare plant populations.

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Private and Public Properties Can Play an Important Role in Connecting Pine Rockland Fragments

West Miami Middle School Pine Rockland Garden :

West Miami Middle School Pine Rockland Garden Create corridors that connect communities and generations May 2007 May 2013

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Private landowners can participate in the corridors project and will receive a sign to display in their garden.

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Outreach is Key

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CTPN is Growing! 55 individuals 56 schools 5 businesses, NGOs 1 Public space

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Why can’t these be pine rockland plants?

Perception of Beauty and Maintaining Curb Appeal:

Perception of Beauty and Maintaining Curb Appeal

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Studies Document the Importance of Corridors and Native Plants in Landscapes Haaland, C., R. E. Naisbit, and L. Bersier. 2011. Sown wildflower strips for insect conservation: a review. Insect Conservation and Diversity 4: 60-80. Moradin, L. A. and C. Kreman. 2013. Bee preference for native vs. exotic plants in restored agricultural hedgerows. Restoration Ecology 21:26-32. Skorka, P, M. Lenda, D. Moron, K. Kalarus, P. Tryjanowski. 2013. Factors affecting road mortality and the suitability of road verges for butterflies. Biological Conservation 159:148-157.

Rockland Rare Plant Foster Gardener Program :

Rockland Rare Plant Foster Gardener Program Contact Devon to arrange a site visit. Arrange to pick up the plants at the CTPC during business hours. Plant the plants within two weeks after receiving them. Agree to host the plants for a period not less than 5 years. Give quarterly updates about the condition of the plants to the CTPC. Notify the CTPN if there will be a change in landscaping that would necessitate moving the plants or if there will be a change in property ownership (IF THERE IS SUCH A CHANGE, FAIRCHILD REQUESTS an OPPORTUNITY TO REMOVE the plants). For those with suitable existing pine rockland on their property …

Reality Sandwiches and Maintaining Perspective:

Reality Sandwiches and Maintaining Perspective Stepping stones are possible, but physical connections between fragments are not. There are opportunities at schools . Even short-term fix may give rare species a hedge against extinction. Even if kids get a little bit of exposure to pine rocklands, it may foster long-term care for the environment. The CTPN provides an avenue for sharing experience with growing native plants.


Acknowledgments This work has been supported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FL Dept Agriculture and Consumer Services, and Miami Dade Environmental Education CBO. Thanks to Keith Bradley, the Institute for Regional Conservation, Mary Collins, Rob Campbell, Don Walters, Devon Powell, Scott Lewis, Karen Minkowski, Jennifer Possley, Julissa Roncal, Cheso Walters, Nadia Spencer, Sam Wright and The Fairchild Challenge for their work with CTPN.

Thank you for your attention! Join the Fun!:

Thank you for your attention! Join the Fun! Helpful web addresses: Connect to Protect Natives for your Neighborhood: Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council:

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Seed banking – conserving and storing species away from their original habitats Enables plants to escape threats imposed by destructive habitat changes including urbanization, climate change, invasive species, over-harvest, and pollution. An efficient and cost-effective way to conserve the diversity of plant species for generations to come. Gregory Mueller Chicago Botanic Garden

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Threats to Plants at the Urban –Wild Interface Fragmentation Invasive Species Pollution Changes in Hydrology Climate Change Exacerbated by: Past and Continuing loss of habitat through urbanization and land transformation resulting in small , fragmented and isolated patches of natural areas

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Important For Current Restoration Projects Source of Local Genotypes

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US Provisional Seed Transfer Zones For many of us, AM may be simply sourcing seed differently for restoration, from one seed zone south for example Responding to a Changing Climate Assisted Migration as part of restoration…. Provisional seed transfer zones Figure from Bower, St. Clair and Erickson – USFS

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Saving Seeds of Plants Under Siege From Disease and Pests

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Cirsium pitcheri Seed Collecting Can Spot Emerging Threats

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Chicago Botanic Garden focus: Tallgrass Prairie Project Aim: Seed bank species of native Midwestern flora for conservation and restoration purposes Focus is on tallgrass prairie, but also collecting seeds from other ecosystems

Facts and Figures:

Facts and Figures 2292 accessions in the bank 1222 species represented Collections from 33 states 30 contract collectors 15 regular seed bank volunteers + ~350 corporate work day volunteers each year

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Perform literature search to determine overall importance of each taxon in plant communities Conservative species frequently used later in restoration projects Pioneer species or “ Native Winners ” Taxa at the edge of range Consult restoration community Eliminate non-native and hybrid taxa Important taxa for restoration Compile a comprehensive species list – Nature Serve This process resulted in 580 high-priority restoration species for which we are aiming to collect ~20 accessions throughout the range

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Apply species distribution modeling such as MaxEnt Determine Population Level Collection Priorities Apply GIS-based habitat matching protocol Determine restoration or migration strategy Outside future climate envelope Unprotected At Range Edges Restoration and future implementation of assisted migration, if deemed necessary

Banking the Restoration Collection::

Banking the Restoration Collection: Count Clean Divide 2/3 Dixon seed bank 1/3 Bend Seed Extractory , Bend OR 1/3 Germination/Research (freeze at 20º C) 1/3 Conservation (freeze at 20º C) Dry to 15% humidity 1/3 USDA National Plant Germplasm System, Ft. Collins, CO

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Seed cleaning…

Counting and Weighing:

Counting and Weighing


X-ra X-ray imaging for viability testing X-ray imaging allows us to estimate the number of potentially viable seeds in a collection. infested empty filled

Drying and Freezing:

Drying and Freezing Seeds are dried to 15% RH, then sealed in an air-tight foil envelope and stored in the seed vault at -20C.

Native Seed Farming:

Native Seed Farming We are bulking seed of several hard-to-obtain restoration taxa Utilizing vacant city lots Partnering with Cook County Boot Camp Determining if this can be self-sustaining without external funding Also Partnering with Cook County Forest Preserve District to create a native seed farm In discussions with State of Illinois Native Plant Farm regarding a partnership

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Gardens as conservation partners in the urban-wild interface Johnny R andall North Carolina Botanical Garden The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

The North Carolina Botanical Garden engages the community in the urban-wild interface by::

The North Carolina Botanical Garden engages the community in the urban-wild interface by: Administering university-owned natural areas within urban areas Owning conservation lands outright through the Botanical Garden Foundation (BGF) Holding conservation easements (through BGF) Organizing volunteer groups Cooperating with local conservation groups , municipalities , county government, state agencies, developers , and utilities Public involvement and conservation advocacy

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North Carolina Botanical Garden-Owned Properties Coker Arboretum – 5 acres Mason Farm Biological Reserve – 367 Parker Preserve - 118 Hunt Arboretum – 124 Gray bluff Garden- 8 Piedmont Nature Trails – 50 Totten Center and grounds – 25 Coker Pinetum – 26 Battle Park – 93 Botanical Garden Foundation Properties Stillhouse Bottom Nature Preserve – 23 acres Laurel Hill Nature Preserve – 75 acres Laurel Hill Residence and Grounds – 2 Highland Pond (Chatham Co.) – 3 Creekside Bluff (Orange Co.) – 1 Gordon Butler Nature Preserve (Cumberland Co.) – 12.5 Villa Pinea – 12 Botanical Garden Foundation Conservation Easements Morgan Creek Easements (12 parcels) – 6 acres Laurel Hill Easements – 12 Stillhouse Bottom – 5 Villa Pinea – 12 Morgan Creek Preserve – 92 Botanical Garden Foundation Managed Lands Penny’s Bend Nature Preserve – 84 acres Total = 1,133 acres Lands administered by the North Carolina Botanical Garden Conservation Department staff

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Parker Preserve The Chapel Hill urban-wild interface

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Botanical Gardens with nature preserves and prescribed fire programs Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas Shaw Nature Preserve, Missouri Botanical Garden Cornell Plantations, Cornell University Chicago Botanic Garden Morton Arboretum State Botanical Garden of Georgia, University of Georgia Matthaei Botanical Garden, University of Michigan Mobile Botanical Gardens Royal Botanical Gardens, Ontario And there are many more…

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North Carolina Botanical Garden The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Penny’s Bend Nature Preserve and Eno River Diabase Sill Macrosite conservation :

Penny’s Bend Nature Preserve and Eno River Diabase Sill Macrosite conservation Principle partners: NC Plant Conservation Program (NCDA) Eno River Association NC Botanical Garden

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Resolution to cooperate with the Lands Legacy Program of the Orange County Environment and Resources Conservation Department By the Board of Directors of the Botanical Garden Foundation, Inc. Whereas , the natural areas of Orange County are becoming ever more threatened by land conversion and habitat fragmentation; and Whereas , the Orange County Lands Legacy Program has a proven record for natural area protection and land stewardship; and Whereas , the conservation mission of the North Carolina Botanical Garden and the Botanical Garden Foundation, Inc., is to participate in and promote the conservation of biological diversity ; and Whereas , the North Carolina Botanical Garden seeks to form partnerships with other conservation organizations that hold a similar mission; and Therefore, Be It Resolved that the members of the Board of Directors of the Botanical Garden Foundation, Inc., will work in cooperation with the Orange County Lands Legacy Program toward common conservation efforts.

Orange County cooperation examples:

Orange County cooperation examples BGF Involvement with the Orange County Commission for the Environment Lands Legacy participation on NCBG Conservation Committee Nature Preserve funding through Lands Legacy Program Consulting on Orange County natural area inventory and management

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Conserving the native vegetation along Orange County roadsides a nd rights-of-way

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Seed collection, p rocessing, and s torage

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Seed collecting with NC Wildlife Resources Commission harvester through the US Fish and Wildlife Service

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Seed desiccation room and vacuum sealer all s upported by USFWS grants

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Consulting on conservation design, restoration, and management

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The Nature Conservancy annual prescribed fire refresher training hosted by NCBG Fire engine operation Fire shelter deployment

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Seed collection in Croatan National Forest for propagation in order to create habitat for the endangered Aragos skipper The Nature Conservancy connection

Taxodium ascendens seed collection, propagation, and outplanting:

Taxodium ascendens seed collection, propagation, and outplanting TNC Antioch Bay Nature Preserve restoration

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Wire grass ( Aristida stricta ) seed collection, propagation, and planting on Nature Conservancy preserves Andy Walker

Receipt of poached Purple Pitcher Plants & Venus’ Flytraps:

Receipt of poached Purple Pitcher Plants & Venus’ Flytraps

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Green Swamp NCBG/The Nature Conservancy poached plant planting partnership

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NC Department of Transportation partnership with rare plant translocations

Town of Chapel Hill - Morgan Creek Preserve conservation easement:

Town of Chapel Hill - Morgan Creek Preserve conservation easement

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Unwitting ecological harm. For example – vernal pool and intermittent stream disruption. B ecause we have been asked by developers for advice – we have engaged them

Conservation Principles for Development from the North Carolina Botanical Garden :

Conservation Principles for Development from the North Carolina Botanical Garden Inventory and protect significant natural areas. Protect water quality. Cluster development, natural areas, and corridors to prevent habitat fragmentation. Minimize environmental impacts. Landscape and restore areas to achieve highest and best use for conservation. The North Carolina Botanical Garden , as a collaborator, can take the role of Participant, Evaluator , or Advisor. The Principles

Inventory and protect significant natural areas:

Inventory and protect significant natural areas Designate natural areas and establish boundaries to protect them; save places outright as part of the design; allow no development on significant natural areas; and include these commitments in neighborhood covenants. Conserve areas needed to support the quality of significant natural areas in surrounding tracts and corridors needed to connect to natural areas on those tracts. Write management plans for natural areas that ensure minimal impact and retention of snags and downed woody debris for wildlife where these are not hazards to health and property.

Cluster development, natural areas, and corridors to prevent habitat fragmentation:

Cluster development, natural areas, and corridors to prevent habitat fragmentation Cluster development to minimize habitat fragmentation; set standards for the ratio of developed to undeveloped land; minimize road widths and total road length within the tract; support designs for walking and public transportation and sense of community. Look for opportunities to connect natural areas with corridors.

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NCBG acted as an advisor on significant natural area location, subdivision development, and conservation design.

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Homeowner’s Association involvement Information on: Invasive plants Pests and pathogens Natural history

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Stream bank stabilization (beyond rip wrap) in cooperation with Orange Water and Sewer Authority May, 2003 June 2, 2006

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Additional OWASA c onsulting on sewer line b urial beneath creek bed

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Stabilization with coconut fiber mats and “logs,” and native plant plantings

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Embracing the urban-wild interface

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No part of this presentation may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the American Public Gardens Association. Copyright © 2013 by the American Public Gardens Association. All rights reserved. The American Public Gardens Association V ision: A world where public gardens are indispensable APGA 2013 Garden Evolution Conference _______________________________________________

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