Charismatic Megafauna

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Rascally Rabbits:

Rascally Rabbits Photo by Jeff Stemshorn

Balance:

Balance Strive for balance Appreciate and respect nature Responsibility to maintain plant collections, including rare and endangered plants for future generations Tolerance of some plant damage IPM, use most ecologically-friendly and humane methods first

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PREDATOR PREY

Desert Cottontail Sylvilagus audubonii:

Desert Cottontail Sylvilagus audubonii Most frequently spotted desert-dwelling mammal Lifespan <1yr -15 mos in wild Few defenses = tremendous reproduction Females can breed at 3 mos of age, up to 6 litters/yr, average 3-4 young per litter =fairly constant supply of cottontails

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Desert Cottontail Eastern Cottontail Photo by Tom Gatz

Jackrabbits Lepus californicus:

Jackrabbits Lepus californicus Jackrabbits may travel several miles/night for food Black-tailed jacks eat around ¼ lb food/day Travel 1-2 mls /day, up to 10 mls in scarce times

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Photos by Dick Trelease

rosa:

rosa Photo by Rosa Crespo

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Photos by Scott McMahon

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web.gccaz.edu/ glendalelibrary /glis%20dasylirion%20quadrangulatum.htm

aelliott:

aelliott Photo by Angelica Elliott

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Photo by Scott McMahon

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Photo by Scott McMahon

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Photo by Scott McMahon

rl:

rl Photos by Ray Leimkuehler

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Photo by Jeff Stemshorn

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Average doe can produce up to 18 young per year (rare due to predation and environmental factors in wild, however…)

Dick trelease:

Dick trelease Photo by Dick Trelease

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Photo by Jeff Stemshorn

Pest Management:

Pest Management Physical barriers Fences, cages 2’- 3’ (jackrabbits), bury 6-10” and turn fencing outward New plantings Smaller mesh size, complete coverage (squirrels) Issues: Costly Wildlife caught in fencing/netting Maintenance Gates Partially effective Aesthetics

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2’ tall fencing $7-$10 linear foot

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Photo by Angelica Elliott

Pest Management:

Pest Management Biological intervention Encourage habitat for predators, owls, snakes… Cats Spayed/neutered, shots Reduce rat, mouse, squirrel population Issues: More rabbits than predators No consensus over cats in the Garden Fed by employees Kill birds and lizards

Pest Management:

Pest Management Chemical intervention Poison – not used Food chain Slow death Repellents

Products Tested:

Products Tested Rabbit & Groundhog Out Shake-Away Deer Scram (two products) Liquid Fence Rabbit Repellent* * Most effective 3-20% damage, one plant eaten to ground with every product except Liquid Fence Coyote urine Chile pepper spray

Pest Management:

Pest Management Chemical intervention Liquid Fence ~$125 for 1 gal concentrate 1 gal=16 gal coverage 32,000 sq ft Planted area ~50 acres Application frequency 1-2 weeks

Pest Management:

Pest Management Chemical intervention Issues: Impractical for large areas Moderately-low effectiveness Costly Reapplication/Time consuming

Pest Management:

Pest Management Chemical intervention Issues: Offensive scent

Trap & Relocate:

Trap & Relocate Relocation mortality rates high Find resources Spread disease Far lower density in wild Illegal in some states, once trapped, must be released on site or killed Injured while trapped Trap unintended animals Photo by Rosa Crespo

Pest Management:

Pest Management Lethal eradication Last resort Safety Garden closed Discreetly and humanely as possible Pellet gun, air rifle Comply with all laws and restrictions Required permits & licenses on file Donated carcasses

PR:

PR Endured a small but vocal cohort of opposition Respect opinions, similar concerns/feelings Always open to suggestions Obligation to protect plants The least intrusive method, reserve the right to ultimately reduce populations

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The Garden’s commitment to the community is to advance excellence in education, research, exhibition and conservation of desert plants of the world with emphasis on the Southwestern United States. We will ensure that the Garden is always a compelling attraction that brings to life the many wonders of the desert . NAPCC collections Cactaceae (1319 taxa ), Agavaceae (346 taxa )

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“ Please remove us from your mailing list. I would never join an organization that kills any kind of wildlife – except snakes. Rabbits may be pesky but I believe they belong in the desert.”

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“ What about plant’s rights? They have no defense. Where’s the love for plants? Rabbits are not innocent. I saw two rabbits breaking into a car last week. The world has gone mad, I tell you!”

Public Suggestions:

Public Suggestions Ignore the rabbits Buy big cat zoo poop and apply for at least 3 months (over 50 acres) Relocate the rabbits to personal property (homeowner) Trap, spay neuter/release Fence every plant/whole garden Plant rabbit resistant plants

rosa:

rosa Photo by Rosa Crespo Place damage proof rabbits

Jeff stemshorn:

Jeff stemshorn Photo by Jeff Stemshorn

Deer Management at Public Gardens:

Deer Management at Public Gardens May 21, 2013

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“Maintaining balanced and diverse wildlife populations is an important part of Longwood’s commitment to responsible environmental stewardship. Many of the animal species found on our property have no impact on the displays or operations and are left to fulfill their natural roles. Other species require occasional attention to safeguard Longwood’s displays. Still others dictate an advanced level of management to minimize their impacts to the property .”

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A wildlife management success story (??) 500,000 individuals in 1900; 15 million today $2 billion in damages 2900%

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#1 #50 $1 billion annually in auto damages

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$250 million in landscape damages

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Public Gardens as D eer R efuges Why?? 1971

2005:

2005

Build the habitat and they will come…:

Build the habitat and they will come…

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Deer Management Sensitivity cannot be overstated Integrated Pest Management principles still apply

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Management Techniques: Exclusion Alternate Food Sources Harassment Repellants Hunting

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Management Techniques: Exclusion Alternate Food Sources Harassment Repellants Hunting

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Management Techniques: Exclusion Alternate Food Sources Harassment Repellants Hunting

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Harassment Shouting/clapping Moving towards deer Non-lethal pyrotechnics

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Management Techniques: Exclusion Alternate Food Sources Harassment Repellants Hunting

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Inconsistent effectiveness Offensive odor Longevity

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Management Techniques: Exclusion Alternate Food Sources Harassment Repellants Hunting

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Must be tightly controlled Laws and regulations can be confusing Forging relationships with regulatory agencies Public perception concerns Who is allowed to hunt?

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“In all cases, wildlife is only managed at specific times and locations where it is warranted to protect our displays and enhance the guest experience. We are acutely aware of the sensitive nature of wildlife control. The safety of our guests, the overall impact to our operations, and the recommendations of national wildlife organizations are all carefully considered before any management strategy is used. The adherence to federal and state wildlife regulations is always of utmost importance .”

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Step out of your world and into ours. . . Experience Longwood Visit us anytime at longwoodgardens.org

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Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Scott LaFleur, Director of Horticulture APGA May, 2013

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Fawn lounging in the Carex pennsylvanica lawn at garden in the Woods, Framingham Mass.

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Pack Rat Ground Squirrel

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Water Lush growth & seed production Lots of cover from predators

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Understand the lifecycle Determine which burrows are active Bait but do not set traps so the squirrels get used to them Bait and set traps Fill soil around traps to prevent squirrel from going around it. Stake down trap so it can not be carried off Trigger the trap about mid afternoon to avoid killing nocturnal animals, squirrels are most active in the early morning to early afternoon Maintain vigilance and fill in / destroy old tunnels.

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Thank You slafleur@rsabg.org

Horticulture II: Charismatic Mega-fauna :

Horticulture II: Charismatic Mega-fauna Presented by: Shane McGuire,Conservationist

Goose Control Methods :

Goose Control Methods

Cleared for Landing:

Cleared for Landing

Control Methods:

Control Methods

Methods Used by The Dawes Arboretum:

Methods Used by The Dawes Arboretum

Electric Fence:

Electric Fence Run two or three wires low to the ground and close in the area you are wanting to protect Put your stakes about 10' feet apart to hold up the fence. Hook wires up to a car battery.

Electric Fence:

Electric Fence Very effective Easy to install Does not need monitoring Unattractive Needs consistent maintenance Unsafe for populated areas PROS CONS

RC Boats:

RC Boats

Fake Alligator Heads:

Fake Alligator H eads

Coyote :

Coyote

Leave Tall Grass Around Pond:

Leave Tall Grass Around Pond

Hunting:

Hunting

Questions?:

Questions?

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No part of this presentation may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the American Public Gardens Association. Copyright © 2013 by the American Public Gardens Association. All rights reserved. The American Public Gardens Association V ision: A world where public gardens are indispensable APGA 2013 Garden Evolution Conference _______________________________________________