Plant Taxonomy & Nomenclature Wed 815

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Evolution of Cultivated Plant Names: An Exploration of the Codes of Nomenclature, Cultivar Registration, Plant Patents, and Trade Designation:

Evolution of Cultivated Plant Names: An Exploration of the Codes of Nomenclature, Cultivar Registration, Plant Patents, and Trade Designation This session will be moderated by: Anthony S. Aiello, Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania Presented by: Michael Dosmann , Arnold Arboretum Natalie Iwanycki, Royal Botanical Gardens Todd Lasseigne , Oklahoma Centennial Botanical Garden Richard Olsen, US National Arboretum Raul Puente-Martinez, Desert Botanical Garden

PowerPoint Presentation:

What do you need to know about the Codes? Michael S. Dosmann, PhD Curator of Living Collections

Nomenclature, taxonomy, & verification:

N omenclature , taxonomy, & verification Prunus grayana 191-77B

PowerPoint Presentation:

Human nature to describe, organize, and assign names to things… We use tools to help.

Identification vs taxonomy/classification vs nomenclature:

Identification vs taxonomy/classification vs nomenclature Phylogeny of Stewartia Li, J. et al. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Stewartia ( Camellioideae , Theaceae ) inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Rhodora 104: 117-133)

Prioritization… preferably:

Prioritization… preferably KNOW what you have – Look at the plant and verify it to an identity SELECT a classification scheme – Choose the ‘best’ taxonomy APPLY the correct name – Refer to the Codes of Nomenclature as needed

Taxonomy / Systematics:

Taxonomy / Systematics The science classifying biodiversity Domain Kingdom Division (plants) / Phylum (animals) Class Order Family Genus Species Little fleas have littler fleas… ad infinitum

Nomenclature:

Nomenclature Kingdom Division Class Order Family Genus Species Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Magnoliales Magnoliaceae Magnolia Magnolia acuminata L. binomial

What about within-species variation?:

What about within-species variation? Genus Species Subspecies Variety Forma cultivar Acer Acer saccharum Acer saccharum ssp. nigrum Acer saccharum var. rugelii Acer saccharum f. monumentale Acer saccharum ‘Legacy’

A functional naming system must be…:

A functional naming system must be… Simple … not confusing Precise … not ambiguous Stable … no weather vaning Dynamic … prudent change is good

One Code to Rule Them All…:

One Code to Rule Them All… 18 th International Botanical Congress (Melbourne), 2011 Current Code quite different from the 17 th Congress: ICN (International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants), formerly the ICBN Electronic publication acceptable Latin not required, English is acceptable Simpler to read with greater standardization Validated the Vienna Code’s treatment of Acacia (i.e., Acacia s.s. encompasses the Australian “subgenus”) http ://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php?page=title

PowerPoint Presentation:

Malus hupehensis AA 7241*A on 9 May 2005

Malus ‘Donald Wyman’ cultivar of crabapple AA 23254*A:

Malus ‘Donald Wyman’ cultivar of crabapple AA 23254*A

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants :

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants ICNCP in 8 th edition ( Wageningen ) ICN rules apply first, then ICNCP steps in for Cultivars Cultivar Groups Grexes (but only for orchids…) Does NOT apply to T rade designations (but attempts advice) Populations, clones, breeding lines, etc… that are not registered cultivars (nor ever should be)

A few things to remember… :

A few things to remember… Names are tools The Codes and their writers do their best, but are not perfect Verification to identity – looking at the plants – should always be the highest priority, even if time does not permit it

Cultivar Name Registration in North America:

Cultivar Name Registration in North America Natalie Iwanycki Herbarium Curator & Field Botanist Royal Botanical Gardens, Canada

PowerPoint Presentation:

Three kinds: Cultivar Name Registration/ICRA Plant Patents/Plant Breeders Rights Registered Trademarks Plant Registrations Plant breeding photo? Trademark on nursery label?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cultivar Name Registration Cultivar Name Registration preceded ICNCP by 50 years Possibly orchid names registered first – 1895 by commercial orchid growers in England & Belgium Sander’s Orchid Guide (1901) Photos of hard copy registries Photos: C. Balistrieri

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cultivar Name Registration in North America Among the first in N. America: American Peony Society (Department of Registration 1923) American Rose Society (American Rose Annual 1916) American Iris Society (Iris Check List 1922) In 1947 American Horticultural Council set up a Commission on Registration and Nomenclature

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cultivar Name Registration Checklists of plant cultivars (varieties) became the basis for cultivar name registration Plant societies with established cultivar name registration program became the first International Registration Authorities appointed under the rules of the ICNCP in 1953 International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA) appointed by International Society of Horticultural Science (ISHS) Commission on Nomenclature and Registration SW Gardens, Lily Nursery, Ontario

PowerPoint Presentation:

Role of AABGA (APGA) in Cultivar Registration 1959: AAN, AHS, AABGA, agreed that the AHS would have the authority to designate organizations in the US to take on the responsibility of registering new cultivar names 1959: AABGA was appointed as the responsible group to register any cultivar names for genera of woody plants not currently registered by any other society (“Unassigned Woody Ornamentals”) AABGA passed this responsibility onto the Arnold Arboretum – for a two year period (National Registration Authority) 1959-1980: Arnold Arboretum 1981-1984: US National Arboretum 1984-1993: Longwood Gardens 1993: Royal Botanical Gardens 1994-present: Brooklyn Botanic Gardens Malus × moerlandsii ‘Profusion’

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cultivar Name Registration Volunteer-based, non-statutory Published, established and accepted Nomenclatural Standard prepared If no ICRA exists, name must be submitted to the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) Code Commission for a ruling (IUBS is responsible for the ICNCP)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cultivar Names, following ICNCP Multi-word names OK Less than 30 characters No Latinised words; any other language is valid No genus names No confusing names Words like hybrid, variety, form, series, strain not allowed Words considered offensive should be avoided Magnolia grandiflora ‘Bracken’s Brown Beauty’ Thuja occidentalis var. aurea = T. occidentalis ‘ Aurea ’ Zinnia marylandica ‘PAS553645’ (Double Zahara ™) ’ Malus ‘Hillier’

ISHS-ICRA http://www.ishs.org/sci/icralist/icralist.htm:

ISHS-ICRA http://www.ishs.org/sci/icralist/icralist.htm

ISHS-ICRA http://www.ishs.org/sci/taxlist/taxlist.htm:

ISHS-ICRA http://www.ishs.org/sci/taxlist/taxlist.htm

Bromeliad Society International http://registry.bsi.org/:

Bromeliad Society International http://registry.bsi.org/

Bromeliad Society International http://registry.bsi.org/?genus=BROMELIA:

Bromeliad Society International http://registry.bsi.org/?genus=BROMELIA

Bromeliad Society International http://registry.bsi.org/?genus=BROMELIA&id=11092#11092:

Bromeliad Society International http://registry.bsi.org/?genus=BROMELIA&id=11092#11092

PowerPoint Presentation:

Why are ICRAs important to us? Promotes uniform, accurate, and stable plant names Communication Direct link to Plant Patents and Plant Breeders Rights Trade designations for one cultivated plant can vary from region to region Correct nomenclature should be part of quality assurance Syringa breeding, RBG Lilac Collection

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Limitations of Name Registration Syringa vulgaris ‘Sensation’, RBG Voluntary Non-statutory May take a long time for the name to be published Lack of standards between ICRAs Not all lists are readily available to us

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Perhaps difficult for the plant breeder or nurseryman to see the benefit of registering Not always easy (i.e. not all registrations are fast, or web-based) Trade designations (selling names) and trademarks are increasing in popularity Future or ICRAs? Syringa vulgaris ‘ Krasavi ts a Moskvy ’ BEAUTY OF MOSCOW

Plant Patents and Trade Designations Implications for Public Gardens:

Plant Patents and Trade Designations Implications for Public Gardens The Garden Evolution Conference Phoenix 2013 F. Todd Lasseigne, Ph.D. President and CEO Oklahoma Centennial Botanical Garden Tulsa, Oklahoma

PowerPoint Presentation:

Plant Patents & Related Items

History of Plant Protection in the U.S.:

History of Plant Protection in the U.S. Plant Patent Act (1930) Restricts asexual propagation and sale of plants for 20 years (17 or 18 years before 1995) to the holder of the patent Excludes tuber-bearing plants (e.g., potatoes) Updated in 1998 to protect patent holders from foreign companies importing and selling parts of patented plants into U.S. markets Plant Patents are issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

Plant Patent Nomenclature:

Plant Patent Nomenclature Once a plant patent has been filed with USPTO, letters “PPAF” (Plant Patent Applied For) follow name. This is commonly seen in nursery catalogs. Once a plant patent has been granted by USPTO, it is customary to list the plant name follows by PPxxxx (where “x” represents the plant patent number) E.g., Acer rubrum ‘ Franksred ’ PP4864 Very few public gardens display plant patent numbers on their display labels

Plant Patents Relationship to Plant Nomenclature:

Plant Patents Relationship to Plant Nomenclature Ultimately, plant patents have nothing to do with the name of a plant More information available at: http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/plant/ Search U.S. Plant Patents at: http://www.uspto.gov/patents/process/search/

Plant Patent 1 “The New Dawn” climbing rose:

Plant Patent 1 “The New Dawn” climbing rose

U.S. Plant Patent Search Helpful Hint:

U.S. Plant Patent Search Helpful Hint

U.S. Plant Patent Search Helpful Hint:

U.S. Plant Patent Search Helpful Hint

Plant Patent Documents Hold Useful Material:

Plant Patent Documents Hold Useful Material Cultivar Name (in most cases) Originator’s name Date patent filed Add 20 years to determine date on which it will expire. Date patent granted Descriptive data about the plant Plant Patent Documents rarely contain information on trade names or designations

International Plant Protection:

International Plant Protection UPOV – International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants Oversees PBR (Plant Breeders’ Rights) programs Also called PVR (Plant Variety Rights) Work differently than U.S. Plant Patents Grants intellectual property rights to breeders of new plants (similar to utility patents) [versus Plant Patents which restrict propagation and sale of protected plants]

PowerPoint Presentation:

Trade Designations & Trademarks

What is a Trademark?:

What is a Trademark? USPTO definition – “a word, phrase, symbol or design, or a combination thereof, that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of one party from those of others” Basically, a trademark or trade designation is an assertion of ownership over a name or mark by an individual and/or business entity; it is used for marketing purposes

Symbols Used for Trademarks:

Symbols Used for Trademarks ™ Non-registered Trademark ® Registered Trademark ℠ Service Mark

Trademark Classes:

Trademark Classes CLASS 31 Grains and agricultural, horticultural and forestry products not included in other classes; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds ; natural plants and flowers ; foodstuffs for animals; malt. Explanatory Note Class 31 includes mainly land products not having been subjected to any form of preparation for consumption, live animals and plants as well as foodstuffs for animals.

Quercus robur ‘Wandell’ (Attention!):

Quercus robur ‘ Wandell ’ ( Attention !)

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 1:

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 1 Cultivar names (ICNCP) must be “universally and freely available” for use by anyone; this is directly at conflict with the concept of a trademark This means that the cultivar name and the trademark name cannot be the same E.g., Rosa ‘ Radrazz ’ for Knockout® rose

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 2:

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 2 Rules for establishing PBR status require names that must be established using terminology specific to the PBR legislation; these rules are also contrary to the rules for naming cultivars and result in the creation of “trade designations” E.g., Cercis canadensis ‘ Litwo ’

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 2 cont’d.:

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 2 cont’d. These “trade designations” sometimes conflict with names listed in USPTO documents. E.g., RHS shows Cercis canadensis ‘ Litwo ’ with the trade designation Little Woody However, USPTO shows a plant patent granted for Cercis canadensis ‘Little Woody’ (PP15,854) What is the correct name?

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 2 cont’d.:

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 2 cont’d. These “trade designations” sometimes conflict with names listed in USPTO documents. E.g., RHS shows Cercis canadensis ‘ Litwo ’ with the trade designation Little Woody However, USPTO shows a plant patent granted for Cercis canadensis ‘Little Woody’ (PP15,854) What is the correct name?

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 3:

Trade Names vs. Cultivar Names 3 Since ICNCP does not have legal status, any plants that appear as cultivars but later show up as trademarks or trade designations are invalidated . In these cases, new cultivar names must be given.

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names:

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names Many nurseries do assign seemingly nonsensical cultivar names to plants that have been assigned trademark names. Some hold that these “nonsensical” cultivar names are invalid. Rosa ‘ Radrazz ’ vs. Knockout Acer rubrum ‘ Franksred ’ vs. Red Sunset Rhus typhina ‘ Bailtiger ’ vs. Tiger Eyes Delosperma ‘ Kelaidis ’ vs. Mesa Verde

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names:

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names Many nurseries do assign seemingly nonsensical cultivar names to plants that have been assigned trademark names. Some hold that these “nonsensical” cultivar names are invalid. Rosa ‘ Radrazz ’ vs. Knockout Acer rubrum ‘ Franksred ’ vs. Red Sunset Rhus typhina ‘ Bailtiger ’ vs. Tiger Eyes Delosperma ‘ Kelaidis ’ vs. Mesa Verde THE ABOVE CULTIVAR NAMES ARE ALL VALID

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names:

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names From ICNCP (8 th ed.) Section 21.14 – “The epithet of a cultivar name does not have to consist of an existing word or words but may be a novel invention.” Section 21.25 – “A cultivar epithet may also be in the form of a code of up to 10 characters excluding spaces and that consists of no more than four alternating sets of a letter of letters and a number or number.”

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names:

Note on “Nonsensical” Cultivar Names In truth, these names are perfectly valid as cultivar names and must be used as the cultivar. Other valid cultivar names include: Beta vulgaris ‘SP6 926-0’ Helianthus annuus ‘HA306’ Zea mays ‘Wisconsin 153’

Invalidating a Trademark:

Invalidating a Trademark Trademarks are not supposed to be used to denote the specific product in question. If so used, the trademark is invalidated. The vast majority of trademarks for plants in U.S. horticultural commerce are improperly used. Acer rubrum Red Sunset™ Rhus typhina Tiger Eyes®

Correct Uses of Trademarks:

Correct Uses of Trademarks Trademarks are (technically) correctly used (for plants) when they denote a series. Most bedding plants using trademarks are thusly correct. E.g., Ball Horticulture’s Super Elfin® impatiens Super Elfin® Red Super Elfin® Salmon Super Elfin® Pink etc.

Quirks about Trademarks 1:

Quirks about Trademarks 1 The same plant (cultivar) can be assigned multiple trademarks, even by different owners.

A Tale of Two Trade Names (part 1):

A Tale of Two Trade Names (part 1) Spiraea thunbergii ‘ Ogon ’ = Mellow Yellow® (Hines Growers)

A Tale of Two Trade Names (part 2):

A Tale of Two Trade Names (part 2) Spiraea thunbergii ‘ Ogon ’ = Gold Thread™ (Greenleaf Nursery Company’s “Garden Debut” program)

Quirks about Trademarks 2:

Quirks about Trademarks 2 Since a trademark is a legal entity and not a part of the scientific name of a cultivated plant, there is nothing preventing a company from switching a trademark from one cultivar to another

Recommendations on Labeling Trademarks and Trade Designations:

Recommendations on Labeling Trademarks and Trade Designations Per ICNCP: Trademarks and Trade Designations should always be distinguished by a different typeface E.g., Choisya ternata ‘Limo’ Goldfingers The trademark name does not have to be placed in parentheses, although this is one commonly used practice E.g., Choisya ternata ‘Limo’ ( Goldfingers ) Use of the ® and ™ symbols is not necessary

Recommendations on Labeling Trademarks and Trade Designations:

Recommendations on Labeling Trademarks and Trade Designations Option 2: Treat the trademarks and trade designations as part of the common name since they are not part of the botanical name or cultivar name Choisya ternata ‘Limo’ Goldfinger Mexican mock-orange

The Future?:

The Future? Let’s just say that we should expect this situation to continue to,… EVOLVE!

Molecular impacts on plant collections management & interpretation:

Molecular impacts on plant collections management & interpretation Richard T. Olsen, Lead Scientist for the Germplasm and Urban Tree Breeding Program, USDA-ARS

Appling labels in the garden…:

Appling labels in the garden… Plant nomenclature standardization for communication unique aspects of cultivated code comingling of intellectual property law Taxonomy science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms progress & advancements cladistics , phylogenetic analysis & molecular techniques

Molecular systematics:

Plant systematics phylogenetic relationships based on monophyletic groups evolutionary relationships (natural) Cladistic analysis any character type, scoring homology assumes divergent taxa so hybridizations conflict DNA sequencing: variable mutation rates in more conserved vs. selectively neutral regions of genome (nuclear and organelles) Molecular systematics

APG:

APG Angiosperm Phylogeny Group systematic botanists (40+) establishing a modern taxonomic treatment of flowering plants monophyletic = phylogenetic Linnean orders & families 59 orders, 415 families formal taxonomic ranks based on molecular data APG III. 2009. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161:105-121.

APG:

APG Angiosperm Phylogeny Group systematic botanists (40+) establishing a modern taxonomic treatment of flowering plants monophyletic = phylogenetic Linnean orders & families 59 orders, 415 families formal taxonomic ranks based on molecular data APG III. 2009. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161:105-121.

APGIII highlights:

APGIII highlights basal angiosperms Schisandraceae (incl. Illicium ) Chloranthales sister to Magnoliids monocots refining former Liliaceae Asparagaceae (incl. Agavaceae , Hyacinthaceae , Ruscaceae ) APG III. 2009. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161:105-121.

APGIII highlights:

APGIII highlights eudicots Proteales ( Nelumbaceae , Platanaceae , Proteaceae ) core eudicots Saxifragales ( Altingiaceae out of Hamamelidaceae ) Rosids ( Cannabaceae , incl. Celtis , Humulus , & Trema ). Campanulids ( Adoxaceae out of Caprifoliaceae ) APG III. 2009. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161:105-121.

Altingiaceae:

2 genera, < 20 species 5-15 Altingia 3 Liquidambar similar fruits, thicker walls and knobby in Altingia ; bracts ±; dehiscence type ”discordant rates of evolution in molecules and morphology as well as morphological convergence” Altingiaceae Ickert -Bond et al. 2007. Amer. J. Bot. 94:1094-1115.

Generic conundrums:

Generic conundrums Introgression and hybridizations Semiqiuidambar cathayensis (3 species?) chloroplast & nuclear marker evidence, natural hybridization Liquidambar formosana-acalycina × Altingia chinensis Parrotia subaequalis : evidence of chloroplast capture from Sycopsis in natural populations evergreen ( Sycopsis , Distylium , Distyliopsis ) vs. deciduous ( Parrotia ) × Sycoparrotia semidecidua fertile F1 bigeneric hybrid Wu et al. 2010. J. Plant Res.123:231-239.; Li 2008. Plant Genome. Vol.1, part E., pp. 227-250.

Hydrangea paraphyly:

Hydrangea paraphyly Hydrangeaceae Jamesioideae ( Jamesia & Fendlera ) Hydrangeoideae Hydrangeeae ( Hydrangea, Broussaisia , Cardiandra , Decumaria , Deinanthe , Dichroa , Pileostegia , Platycrater , & Schizophragma ) Philidelpheeae ( Philadelphus , Carpenteria , Detzia , Fendlerella , Kirengeshoma , and Whipplea ) Samain et al. 2010. System. Bot. 35:593-600.

Species concepts:

Species concepts “they form the basic units of biological classification but there is no consensus on how to define species, and likely never will be.” morphological, interbreeding, ecological, cladistic , eclectic, nominalistic … interbreeding populations as the unit of evolution evolution of morphology in the context of ecology via molecular phylogenies Spooner et al. 2003 Hort. Rev. 28:1-60

Molecular impacts:

Molecular impacts Who’s related to who? What are we curating ? Bentham & Hooker/ Cronquist / Takhtajan are dead realignment of herbarium, living collections? historic context vs. facilitating new uses What are we conserving? How diverse are our plant genetic resources? species? populations? cultigens? structure and gap filling important taxa poorly represented in NAPCC What stories do our collections tell? How do we connect our plants to the public?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dealing With Nomenclature Changes Raul Puente Martinez DESERT BOTANICAL GARDEN

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National Agavaceae Collection National Cactaceae Collection >26,000 accessioned plants 13685 accessions 4505 taxa 406 Rare and Threatened

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Plant database Accession tags Identification labels Interpretation signage Stakeholders The impact on living collections

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Family Cactaceae Subfamily: Opuntioideae Genus: Opuntia Tunilla Maihueniopsis Cumulopuntia Austrocylindropuntia Pterocactus Grusonia Cylindropuntia Tephrocactus Brasiliopuntia Miqueliopuntia Opuntia ( Nopalea ) Tacinga Consolea Salmiopuntia

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Family Fabaceae Acacia Acacia Acaciella Vachellia Mariosouza Senegalia

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A new database: livingcollections.org

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ID Labels at DBG Aluminum with Duranodic paint Laser Grant: Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust 2012

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a luminum duranotic bronze 4 x 6 a luminum anodized 4 x 6 a luminum alumark 4 x 6 a luminum metalphoto 4 x 6 n o labels w ooden stakes p aper laminated 4 x 6 paper 4 x 6 paper laminated 2 x 6 p lastic 3 x 5 p lastic gray 3 x 5 p lastic rowmark 4 x 6 p lastic rowmark 4 x 6 with photo plastic green 3 x 5 a luminum 2 x 6 Phylogeny of ID Labels at DBG

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Sophora secundiflora Calia secundiflora Dermatophyllum secundiflorum http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Sophora_secundiflora.html

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Hybrids

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Resources The Plant List Tropicos IPNI Seinet Flora of North America Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

Questions?:

Questions?

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No part of this presentation may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the American Public Gardens Association. Copyright © 2013 by the American Public Gardens Association. All rights reserved. The American Public Gardens Association V ision: A world where public gardens are indispensable APGA 2013 Garden Evolution Conference _______________________________________________