Writing in a Second Language Across the Curriculum

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Writing in a Second Language Across the Curriculum


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Writing in a Second Language Across the Curriculum:

Writing in a Second Language Across the Curriculum Prof. C. Sarmiento

Changing Expectations:

Changing Expectations At the beginning of the 19 th century, literacy was valued due to the ability to read the bible. In the contemporary world in the first part of the 21 st century demands a level of sophistication like never before.

Changing Expectations:

Changing Expectations It is often viewed that “those who do not possess considerable literacy will effectively be ‘locked-out ’ of knowledge, information, and ideas that are part of the culture and society. Those leaving schools without the appropriate level of literacy will be competing for a rapidly diminishing pool of unskilled jobs.

Changing Expectations:

Changing Expectations The relationship between illiteracy, social alienation, and poverty is too acute to be ignored. Students cannot opt out of literacy and remain active participants in society.

Changing Expectations:

Changing Expectations Among those who are potentially disadvantaged because of difficulties in learning to control written English are those who are learning it as a second language.

Learning to Write in a Second Language:

Learning to Write in a Second Language Effective Writers have certain characteristics: They are likely to think about and plan their writing before they even begin. They understand that writing is a process that requires revising and editing at all stage of the process, from the draft to the final product. They are able to anticipate reader problems. They are aware of the differences between speaking and writing. They understand how to organize ideas.

Learning to Write in a Second Language:

Learning to Write in a Second Language Less effective writers usually don’t do any of these things: They often lack confidence to write at length or in new ways. They do not plan. Their writing tends to sound like a “speech written down”. They have difficulty with writing and editing.

A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing:

A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing Different forms of literary writing are often referred to as genres , such as plays, or novels and they can be further categorized in categories such as adventure novels, detective novels, romance novels and so forth. The notion of genre can encompass things as diverse as the TV News, marriage service, a game show, a lesson, a joke, a telephone conversation with a friend, a newspaper report, or a set of written instructions.

A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing:

A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing Every genre has a number of characteristics that make it different from other genres. A genre has a specific purpose; a particular overall structure; specific linguistic features; and is shared by members of the culture.

A Specific Purpose :

A Specific Purpose All of the genres mentioned previously have a specific purpose, be it to give information, to get people married, amusement and so forth. Thus, genres are goal-oriented.

A Particular Structure:

A Particular Structure Every genre has a particular structure. Think about news programs, game shows, romance, action and adventure novels and so forth.

Specific Linguistic Features:

Specific Linguistic Features Every genre has particular linguistic features in common with, or very similar to, other genres in the same type. News articles are usually written in the past tense and include quotes from people involved in the incident. Computer instructions all share similar vocabulary such as drag, open, click, insert, etc.

Shared by Members of the Culture:

Shared by Members of the Culture Genres may vary when presented in different countries depending on their customs, beliefs and so forth. Knowing the context of culture is a part of being able to understand and use language appropriately.

The Text Types of School:

The Text Types of School A number of written genres associated with learning in school have been identified by a group of linguists: Recounts Narratives Reports Procedures Arguments Discussions Explanations

Explicit Teaching About Writing:

Explicit Teaching About Writing In sharp contrast with implicit teaching, explicit teaching refers to explaining exactly what is expected of the students writing. This contrasts the implicit writing style in the sense students are not encouraged to find their own style and voice, instead, the teacher identifies the parts of language and all of the aspects that make for a good writer and directly teaches those skills.

Explicit Teaching About Writing:

Explicit Teaching About Writing It aims to foster active involvement in learning, independence in writing, and the ability to critique ways that language is used in authentic contexts, such as the ways it is used to persuade and control.

The Curriculum Cycle :

The Curriculum Cycle Derewianka (1990) and others involved in the “genre” movement have identified four stages through which a particular text type and be made explicit to students. This is called “the curriculum cycle”. These stages have come to be known as building up the field , modeling the text type , joint construction , and independent writing .

Stage 1: Building the Field:

Stage 1: Building the Field The aim is to make sure that your students have enough background knowledge of the topic to be able to write about it. The focus is on the content of information of the text. Activities involve speaking, listening, reading, information fathering, note taking, and reading.

Stage 2: Model the Text Type:

Stage 2: Model the Text Type The aim is for student to become familiar with the purpose, overall structure, and linguistic features of the type of text they are going to write. The focus is on the form and function of the particular text type that the students are going to write.

Stage 3: Joint Construction:

Stage 3: Joint Construction The student and teacher write a text together so the student can see how a text is writing. The focus here is on illustrating the process of writing a text, considering both the content and the language.

Stage 4: Independent Writing:

Stage 4: Independent Writing Students write their own text.

A Scaffolding Approach to Writing:

A Scaffolding Approach to Writing In this approach, at each stage there is a systematic guidance and support until learner are able to carry out the writing task for themselves. While imagination and ownership are important concepts in teaching writing, they are insufficient to ensure that all students, especially those less familiar with the language, will learn to write in a broad range of contexts.

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