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Chapter 8International Human ResourceManagement : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-1 Chapter 8International Human ResourceManagement

Learning Objectives : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-2 Learning Objectives Define international human resource management (IHRM) Understand how corporate strategy influences IHRM Explain the major IHRM functions: recruitment and selection, training and development, performance evaluation, compensation and benefits, and labor relations Discuss additional special concerns of managing expatriate employees

International Human Resource Management (IHRM) : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-3 International Human Resource Management (IHRM) The management of human resources in global corporations The management of expatriate employees The comparison of human resource management (HRM) practices in a variety of different countries

Approaches to Managing and Staffing Subsidiaries : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-4 Approaches to Managing and Staffing Subsidiaries Ethnocentric Home country approach Polycentric Local approach Regiocentric Regional approach Geocentric/Global Global approach

Choosing an Approach to IHRM : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-5 Choosing an Approach to IHRM Corporate international strategy Political and legal concerns Level of development in foreign locations Technology and the nature of the product Organizational life cycle Age and history of the subsidiary Organizational and national cultural differences

Recruitment and Selection : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-6 Recruitment and Selection Processes through which an organization takes in new members Recruitment Attracting a pool of qualified applicants for the positions available Selection Choosing the candidate whose qualifications most closely match the job requirements

Classifying Employees : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-7 Classifying Employees Parent Country National (PCN) Host Country National (HCN) Third Country National (TCN)

The Influence of Managing and Staffing Approaches : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-8 The Influence of Managing and Staffing Approaches Ethnocentric approach PCN’s usually staff important positions at headquarters and subsidiaries Polycentric approach HCN’s generally work in foreign subsidiaries PCN’s manage headquarters positions

The Influence of Managing and Staffing Approaches : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-9 The Influence of Managing and Staffing Approaches Regiocentric approach PCN’s and managers from the region—either HCN’s or TCN’s—staff regional headquarters positions HCN's primarily staff local subsidiaries Geocentric approach Chooses the most suitable person for a position

Selecting the Right Candidate : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-10 Selecting the Right Candidate Need a balance between internal corporate consistency and sensitivity to local labor practices Consider cultural values Must comply with local labor laws

Training and Development : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-11 Training and Development Planned individual learning, organization development, and career development

Delivery of Programs Worldwide : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-12 Delivery of Programs Worldwide Centralized Ethnocentric – training originates at headquarters and corporate trainers travel to subsidiaries Geocentric - training develops through input from both headquarters and subsidiary staff and trainers could be from any location

Delivery of Programs Worldwide : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-13 Delivery of Programs Worldwide Decentralized Training on a local or regional basis Local people develop training materials and techniques for use in their own area Effective training considers cultural background of trainees

Developing Globally Minded Managers : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-14 Developing Globally Minded Managers Companies whose CEO's have international assignment experience are better performers Companies must identify managers with global potential and provide them various training and development opportunities

Performance Evaluation : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-15 Performance Evaluation Systematic appraisal of employees’ performance within the organization Depends on overall HRM strategy Should consider cultural influences

Compensation and Benefits : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-16 Compensation and Benefits Develops and administers the salary system and other forms of remuneration Compensation and benefit levels reflect local labor market conditions Company usually develops policy to offer salaries and benefits representing a specific market level Culture influences value put on various compensation and benefit practices

Labor Relations : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-17 Labor Relations Identifies and defines the roles of management and workers in the workplace In many countries, government regulated Unions organized at the local, company, regional (within country), or national level Number of workers within a country who are union members varies

Managing Expatriates : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-18 Managing Expatriates Must deal with the complexities of employing and moving people outside of their home countries Cost a major factor

Expatriate Failure Rates : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-19 Expatriate Failure Rates Number who do not remain abroad for the duration of their assignment Varies by country and gender Failure rate correlated with the rigor of selection and training procedures

Expatriate Selection : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-20 Expatriate Selection Western European, Japanese multinationals emphasize technical competence and ability to acclimate North American corporations select mainly on technical competence Behaviors successful at home may not work abroad Previous experience abroad may or may not predict future success

Cross-Cultural Training Methods : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-21 Cross-Cultural Training Methods Explain the major aspects of the host country culture, including customs, traditions, every day behaviors. Explain the history, geography, economy, politics, and other general information about the host country and region. Portray a real-life situation in business or personal life to illustrate some aspect of living or working in the host culture. Cultural Briefings Area Briefings Cases

Slide 22: 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-22 Cross-Cultural Training Methods Role Playing Culture Assimilator Field Experiences Allows the trainee to act out a situation that he or she might face in living or working in the host country. Provides a written set of situations that the trainee might encounter in living or working in the host country. Trainee selects one from a set of responses to the situation and is given feedback as to whether it is appropriate and why. Provide an opportunity for the trainee to go to the host country or another unfamiliar culture to experience living and working for a short time.

How Situational Factors Influence the Selection of a CCT Method : 

How Situational Factors Influence the Selection of a CCT Method Degree of Training Rigor High Low High Low Low High Classroom Language Training Films FACTUAL Books Lectures Area Briefings Case Studies Culture Assimilators Sensitivity Training ANALYTICAL Interactive Language Training Role Plays Field Trips Simulations EXPERIENTIAL Degree of Job Novelty Degree of Culture Novelty Training Methods Degree of Interaction with HCNs

Cross-Cultural Adjustment : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-24 Cross-Cultural Adjustment Expatriates must adjust to new work situation, interactions with locals, and new general environment Company can facilitate adjustment by providing training for expatriates and their families before and during the assignment Expatriates often experience cultural shock

Culture Shock Cycle : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-25 Culture Shock Cycle Low High 1 2 3 4 5 6 Months in a New Culture Mood

Expatriate Evaluation : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-26 Expatriate Evaluation Job abroad may include more than what it does at home Senior expat managers often evaluated on financial performance of subsidiary

Expatriate Compensation : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-27 Expatriate Compensation Influenced by general corporate compensation policy Expats usually receive extra compensation and benefits Different packages offered in different locations

Typical Expatriate Benefits : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-28 Typical Expatriate Benefits Overseas premium Housing allowance Cost of living allowance (COLA) Moving expenses Tuition for dependent education Home leave Tax reimbursement plans

Expatriate Reentry : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-29 Expatriate Reentry Reverse culture shock common Many organizations fail to successfully manage expatriate reentry Individuals may pursue boundaryless career Organizations can help to ease reentry

Changes in Global Mobility : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-30 Changes in Global Mobility New types of cross-border employee transfers becoming popular Most important objectives for cross-border transfers to transfer skills and knowledge and to develop and manage global competencies

Convergence or Divergence? : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-31 Convergence or Divergence? Large corporations’ preference for consistent worldwide systems Smaller companies’ desire for more professional systems Need to follow local HRM laws Development of unique techniques and practices to suit local cultural and legal requirements

Implications for Managers : 

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8-32 Implications for Managers Every international manager has responsibility for effectively managing human resources, therefore must understand IHRM functions Helpful to understand IHRM because of potential career impact

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