Twelve Principles of Effective Teaching and Learning

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10 Principles of Effective Teaching and Learning :

10 Principles of Effective Teaching and Learning


These twelve principles are intended as guidelines to faculty and administrators interested in the improvement of teaching and learning.


1. Teachers' knowledge of the subject matter is essential to the implementation of important teaching tasks Teachers who know their subject matter thoroughly can be more effective and efficient at organizing the subject matter, connecting the subject with the students' previous knowledge, finding useful analogies and examples, presenting current thinking on the subject, and establishing appropriate emphases.


2. Active involvement of the learner enhances learning Learning is an active process which requires that the learner work with and apply new material to past knowledge and to everyday life. Some of the methods that encourage active learning in the classroom are: discussion, practice sessions, structured exercises, team projects, and research projects.


3. Interaction between teachers and students is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement Interaction between students and faculty, particularly informal interaction, is one of the most important factors in student motivation for learning.


4. Students benefit from taking responsibility for their learning Students are more motivated when they take control of their own learning. This is the belief which has stimulated active interest in self-directed learning.


5. There are many roads to learning Students learn in different ways and vary in their abilities to perform certain tasks. Understanding that each student has unique strengths and weaknesses related to the ways in which they approach learning is an important component of effective education.


6. Expect more and you will achieve more Simply stated, if an educator conveys to students that he or she believes in their ability to succeed learning is enhanced.


7. Learning is enhanced in an atmosphere of cooperation Learning is enhanced when it is perceived as a collaborative and cooperative effort between students. The opportunity to share ideas without threat of ridicule and the freedom to respond to the ideas of others increases complexity of thinking and deepens understanding.


8. Material must be meaningful If new material is presented in a pattern or framework that the learner can perceive, it is more readily learned and retained. New material will be more easily learned if the learner is helped to see its relationship to what s/he already knows. Material which is seen by the learner as relevant to his or her own problems and experiences will be more readily learned.


9. Both teaching and learning are enhanced by descriptive feedback Without feedback neither learner nor teacher can improve because they will not know what they need to know or to what extent they are fulfilling their goals.


10. Critical feedback is only useful if the learner has alternatives to pursue There is no use giving teachers or students feedback about their performances unless they can do something about it, that is, unless they have some alternative course of action or behaviour .

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