Slide 1: Chapter 08 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Slide 2: Organic Chemistry Slide 3: Tips to Studying Organic Chemistry Slide 4: Modern Definition of Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry involves the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon and sulfur. Slide 5: Modern Definition of Organic Chemistry Slide 6: Subtleties in Structure Slide 7: Main Elements in Organic Chemistry Slide 8: Allotropes of Cabron: Graphite Slide 9: Allotropes of Cabron: Diamond Slide 10: Allotropes of Carbon: Buckminsterfullerine Slide 11: Comparison Between Organic and Inorganic Compounds Slide 12: Organic Compounds
have covalent bonds.
have low melting points.
have low boiling points.
are soluble in nonpolar solvents.
are not soluble in water.
are nonconductors of electricity Inorganic Compounds
have ionic bonds.
have high melting points.
have high boiling points.
are soluble in polar solvents.
are soluble in water.
are conductors of electricity Comparison Between Organic and Inorganic Compounds Slide 13: Functional Groups Slide 26: Functional Groups Slide 27: Functional Groups Slide 30: Ways of Representing Organic Compounds Molecular Formula tells the kind and number of each type of atom in a molecule but does not show the bonding pattern.
Structural Formula shows each atom and bond in a molecule
Condensed Structural Formula shows all the atoms in a molecule in sequential order indicating which atoms are bonded to which
Line Formula (Carbon Skeleton Formula) assumes a carbon atom at any location where lines intersect
- Assume a carbon at the end of any line
- Each carbon in the structure is bonded to the
correct number of hydrogen atoms Butane C4H10 Slide 31: Ways of Representing Organic Compounds Ball and Stick Model have the balls represent the relative sizes of the atoms and the sticks represent the covalent bonds between atoms
Space-filling Model shows how much space an atom (or molecule) really occupies.