CHEM 121 01 INTRODUCTION

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GREAT MINDS TALK ABOUT IDEAS AVERAGE MINDS TALK ABOUT EVENTS SMALL MINDS TALK ABOUT PEOPLE

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Biochemistry Syllabus

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Put in 3 x 5 index card. Then attach a 1x1 photo on the upper right portion Bring another 1x1 photo then pass it to your secretary

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cpesison.multiply.com

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Chapter 01 Introduction to Biochemistry

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How can algae evolve oxygen, yet can also suffocate fishes? Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry

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How does blood carry oxygen and carbon dioxide?

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How can too much sunlight damage the skin?

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How infectious agents act?

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Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules.

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Since carbon is the element of life, organic chemistry plays a large role in biochemistry Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry

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Many times biochemists study how fast reactions occur — that’s physical chemistry

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Often metals are incorporated into biochemical structures (such as iron in hemoglobin) — that’s inorganic chemistry.

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Biochemists use sophisticated instrumentation to determine amounts and structures — that’s analytical chemistry.

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Cells are Us Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry Structure and Functions of the Cell Amazing Things about Cells

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A person contains about 100 trillion cells. That’s 100,000,000,000,000 or 1 x 1014 cells.

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There are about 200 different cell types in mammals (one of us).

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Cells are tiny, measuring on average about 0.002 cm (20 um) across. That’s about 1250 cells, “shoulder-to-shoulder” per inch.

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Bacteria on a needle

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Two Fundamentally Different Types of Cells Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry Structure and Functions of the Cell Amazing Things about Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

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Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

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Major Regions of the Cell Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry Structure and Functions of the Cell Amazing Things about Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cell Anatomy Plasma Membrane

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Let’s talk about Cellular Anatomy!

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Plasma Membrane Functions: Protection Regulates passage of materials in & out the cell Maintains cell shape Proteins serve as channels or receptors

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Cilia are numerous hair-like projections for sweeping motion Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry Structure and Functions of the Cell Amazing Things about Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cell Anatomy Plasma Membrane Membrane Projections Cilia, Microvilli, and Flagella

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Microvilli are numerous finger-like projections that increases surface area for nutrient absorption

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Flagella are whip-like projections for propelling motion

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Cytoplasm is the aqueous region between the plasma membrane and nucleus. Contains the dissolved solutes, various inclusions, and organelles Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry Structure and Functions of the Cell Amazing Things about Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cell Anatomy Plasma Membrane Membrane Projections Cilia, Microvilli, and Flagella Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Centrioles

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Cytoskeleton is a network of fibrous proteins that provide structural support and assist in cell movement Parts of Cytoskeleton (1) Microfilaments – fine filaments of contractile actin protein (2) Intermediate filaments- cell-specific heterogeneous filaments that include keratin, desmin, vimentin, lamins, neurofilament, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (3) Microtubules- hollow tubes constructed of tubulin proteins

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A Centriole is a barrel-shaped organelle which occurs as a pair of hollow cylinders each consists of nine triplets of microtubules Form spindle fibers for the movement of chromosomes during cell division

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Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions Protein synthesis (about half the cell’s proteins are made here). Protein movement (trafficking) Protein “proofreading” Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry Structure and Functions of the Cell Amazing Things about Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cell Anatomy Plasma Membrane Membrane Projections Cilia, Microvilli, and Flagella Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Centrioles Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough and Smooth ER Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Lysosomes Peroxisomes

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Rough ER are flattened sacs that are studded with ribosomes Process and transport proteins that are synthesized by the ribosomes Smooth ER are tubular sacs that lack ribosomes Involved in lipid and drug metabolism Releases Ca2+ for cell signaling

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Ribosomes are particles of RNA and proteins, free or attached to rough ER Site of protein synthesis

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Golgi Bodies Layers of flattened sacs, arranged like stacked bowls They are used to package and modify proteins for secretion or lysosomal inclusion

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Lysosome Functions: Digesting food or cellular invaders Recycling cellular components Cell suicide (suicide is bad for cells, but good for us!) (The lysosome is not found in plant cells) How Lysosomes degrade worn out organelles

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This bacterium about to be eaten by an immune system cell will spend the last minutes of its existence within a lysosome. (tsk.. tsk..)

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Think of the mitochondrion as the powerhouse of the cell. Both plant and animal cells contain many mitochondria. (Mitochondria is the plural of mitochondrion) Biochemistry Definition of Biochemistry Relation to Other Fields of Chemistry Structure and Functions of the Cell Amazing Things about Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cell Anatomy Plasma Membrane Membrane Projections Cilia, Microvilli, and Flagella Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Centrioles Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough and Smooth ER Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Lysosomes Peroxisomes Mitochondria Nucleus Nuclear Membrane, Nucleolus, and Chromatin

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Worn out mitochondria may be an important factor in aging.

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Think of the nucleus as the cell’s control center. Two meters of human DNA fits into a nucleus that’s 0.000005 meters across.

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Nuclear Membrane is a phospholipid bilayer membrane that is continuous with the rough ER, contains proteins that form the nuclear pore complex Separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm, regulates passage of substances to and from the nucleus Nucleolus is a dense spherical body inside the nucleus Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis

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Chromatins are granular, threadlike materials composed of DNA and histone proteins Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis; repository of genetic materials What happens to chromatins during mitosis?

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