Curriculum Day - Fall 2014

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Math Department:

Math Department Curriculum Day Fall 2014

Ancient World Numerals:

Ancient World Numerals

Name some ways numbers are used on a daily basis:

Name some ways numbers are used on a daily basis The speed of your car The combination to your locker The passcode to your phone Adding up the amount you owe at the store so you have enough money Telling time Channels on your TV The stats of your favorite football team Your age Your address

Number Systems:

Number Systems A number is a quantity, representing “How many?” A numeral is a symbol used to represent a number. The system that we use is the Hindu-Arabic system which uses the digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9.

EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS:

EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS One of the first numeral systems, dating around 3000 B.C.E. Symbols for powers of 10. No zero. Ability to add, but no ability to subtract.

EXAMPLE:

EXAMPLE 1,000 + 900 + 10 = 1,910

TRY THESE!:

TRY THESE! 43,068 3,500,000

Roman Numerals:

Roman Numerals Used in most European countries until the Eighteenth century. Roman numerals are expressed by letters of the alphabet. Fewer symbols needed for writing larger numbers compared to Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Basic Principles:

Basic Principles A letter can only be repeated three times. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount. VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6) LXX = 70 (50 + 10 + 10 = 70) MCC = 1200 (1000 + 100 + 100 = 1200) If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount. IV = 4 (5 – 1 = 4) XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90) CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)

Roman Numeral Subtraction:

Roman Numeral Subtraction Only subtract powers of ten (I, X, or C, but not V or L). For 95, do NOT write VC (100 – 5) DO write XCV (XC + V or 90 + 5) Only subtract one number from another. For 13, do NOT write IIXV (15 – 1 – 1) DO write XIII (X + I + I + 1 or 10 + 3) Do not subtract a number from one that is more than 10 times greater. For 99, do NOT write IC (C – I or 100 – 1) DO write XCIX (XC + IX or 90 + 9)

EXAMPLE:

EXAMPLE Symbol Value I 1 V 5 X 10 L 50 C 100 D 500 M 1,000 In 2014, the Seattle Seahawks won Superbowl XLVIII. What number Superbowl does XLVIII represent? XLVIII (50 - 10 + 5 + 3 or 40 + 8 = 48)

Greek Numerals:

Greek Numerals The Greek number system is very similar to Roman numerals without the subtraction property.

Example:

Example XXXHH (3000 + 200 = 3200) HHIII (200 + 3 = 203)

Chinese Numerals:

Chinese Numerals Numbers are written from top to bottom. If a smaller number appears over a larger number, then those quantities are to be multiplied. For consecutive zeros in the middle of a numeral, only one zero has to be written. For zeros at the end of numeral, no zeros are written.

EXAMPLE = 4,359