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Between 1000 and 1100 CE ,things went well for the people of Western Europe……:

Better ways of farming helped peasants grow enough food for the people. They became skilled artisans and began to turn out cloth and metal products. European merchants carried western products to the near east in exchange for luxury goods. Between 1000 and 1100 CE ,things went well for the people of Western Europe ……

Trading centers:

The growth of trade led to the rise of the first large trading centers of the Middle Ages. They were located on the important sea routes that connected Western Europe with the Mediterranean Sea, Russia, and Scandinavia. Venice and Flanders were two of the earliest and most important trading centers. Trading centers

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VENICE An island port in the Adriatic Sea close to the coast of Italy. They depended on the Adriatic Sea for a living. In 1100, Venice became a leading port. Venician merchants learned to read and write, use money and keep records. In time, they developed an effective banking system. Venice prosperity spread along to other Italian towns along the seacoast which became shipping centers. Located on the Northwest coast of Europe. It is a low marshland that is not suited for farming. People raised sheep and use the wool to develop a weaving industry which became famous for its quality. It became an important port for ships traveling along the Atlantic coast from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean . As sea trade grew, Italian towns begun sending goods across the Alps to areas in the north. Soon, an overland trade rout connected Italy and Flanders. FLANDERS





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Merchants became an important part of the European life during the Middle Ages. Merchants traveling along the chief through Eastern France stop to trade with each other at special gatherings called fairs. Fairs were sponsored by nobles who collected taxes and were held once a year for a few weeks at selected places. From the BANC or bench, at which the money changers sat came the english word bank.

Growth of Towns:

Merchants soon became tired of moving around. They began to look for places where they could settle permanently and store their goods. Generally, they chose places along a trade route near waterways or road crossings. They also tried to settle close to a castle or monastery. This helped protect them from robbers and fights between nobles. The merchants surrounded their settlements with palisades and moats. Most towns of the Middle Ages developed from these merchants settlement. The towns came to be called Burgs because they were often near castles called Burgs. Markets became centers of business and social life. Overtime, the town became more than just centers of trade, they became communities in which people lived. Growth of Towns

Living Conditions:

In 1200, many towns became rich. Most towns grew without planning for future growth they often spread beyond their walls into the surrounding country side. The crowded conditions often made towns an unhealthy place in which to live. Sewers were open and there was little concerned for cleanliness. People threw garbage out of windows onto the streets below and rats where everywhere. In 1300 CE, rats came to Europe on trading ships from the Middle East, they carried with them a plague called Black Death, this disease swept through Europe killing millions of people, to escape it people fled from the towns and settled in the country side. Trading, farming, and war came to a temporary halt. Living Conditions

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Merchants and artisans hired workers from the country side to make goods and trade for them. at first, Artisans, merchants and workers who lived in towns were called Burghers. After a while, however, the title was used to mean rich merchants only.

The Burghers (Daily Life and traditions) :

Prayers were said at dawn. The Burgher drank wine for breakfast and hurried of to work. He went to the docks and market to see how well his products were selling. He met with his business partners at a merchants hall or tavern . They resented feudal laws thinking that this laws are not suited for business, they wanted to run their own affairs and to have their own courts and laws. The Burghers (Daily Life and traditions)

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The Burghers depend less on nobles and bishops.Instead they developed a sense of loyalty toward their town. Although they still respected the nobles and church leaders,the burghers were not afraid to speak their minds.They began to demand charges.

Burghers in medieval periods:

Burghers in medieval periods


The medieval towns or burg, created the name for a new class of people. They were called burghers in Germany, and bourgeoisie in France and burgesses in England. It generally referred to anyone living in town.Slowly,it came to mean the people who made money. The middle class helped turn towns into organized municipalities. As the money economy spreads, kings began to depend on the middle class. Bourgeoise

Rise of the bourgeoisie(3 important stages on the evolution and decline of the rich bourgeoisie in ancient times.):

1 st :The bourgeoisie was willing to work with the aristocracy in conducting the state 2nd; Bourgeoisie wanted to gain status. 3 rd: A great military movement involving the crusades. 4 th:The collapse in the ranks of nobility by the numerous famines,plagues,epidemics spreading throughout Europe. Rise of the bourgeoisie(3 important stages on the evolution and decline of the rich bourgeoisie in ancient times.)

The Rise of Guilds:

Around 1100 CE,merchants,artisans,and workers formed Guilds. These were business groups whose purpose was to make sure their members were treated equally.Each craft has its own Guild. Guild members were not allowed to compete with each other. Guilds controlled all businesses and trades in a town. Outsiders who wanted to sell their goods from outside of town market had to get permission from the guilds/. The guilds decided the fair price for a product. It was more than just a business group, Members took care of each other. The Rise of Guilds

Merchants in Guilds:

Merchants in Guilds

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Guilds were center of social life.Huge banquets were held at the guild hall. Before a a person became a member of a Guild,he has to pass several stages Apprentice(10 yrs.) Journeyman(worked under a master for a daily wage) Masters(those who passed the test and can make their own good.) There was usually one guilhall in a town.

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