ncd nutrition

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You are what you eat: 

You are what you eat

What is nutrition: 

What is nutrition The word 'Nutrition" comes from a Latin word which means to 'nourish" or to "to feed". Nutrition covers many areas including: the science of food why people choose certain foods what foods are made of the nutrients in foods how the body uses food food digestion food functions

Food composition: 

Food composition What are foods made of? Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates Carbohydrates come from plant foods. They are the cheapest and most plentiful of all nutrients. Foods, which contain carbohydrates, are called energy foods. Carbohydrates are classified into three groups: Sugar Starch fiber

Sources of carbohydrates: 

Sources of carbohydrates Sugars are found in honey, fruit (both fresh and dried) soft drinks, milk and sugar. Starches are found in cereals, pasta, flour, bread, potatoes, root and pulse vegetables. Fibers are found in fruits, vegetables and whole wheat bread. 

Functions of carbohydrates: 

Functions of carbohydrates Carbohydrates provides the body with heat and energy. Fiber helps the movement of food through the intestine. Fiber rich and starchy foods provide a "full feeling". Carbohydrate deficiency: Carbohydrate deficiency diseases rarely occur, as carbohydrate is present in a wide variety of foods.

Proteins : 

Proteins Proteins are made up of small units called amino acids. Some amino acids can be made by the body while others have to be obtained from food, these are known as essential amino acids. Proteins are classified as high biological value and low biological value.

Sources of protein: 

Sources of protein Proteins with high biological value come mainly from animal foods such as meat, fish, eggs, cheese and milk. Low Biological Value Proteins come mainly from plant foods such as peas, beans and lentils (pulse vegetables), whole cereals and nuts.

Functions of proteins: 

Functions of proteins Growth of new cells such as skin hair and blood. Repair of damaged cells. Production of heat and energy. Manufacture of important body chemicals such as enzymes, hormones and antibodies.

Deficiency of proteins: 

Deficiency of proteins Retarded growth in children. Worn out cells are not replaced. This prevents healing of wounds. Malfunction of various organs due to hormone / enzyme deficiency. Susceptibility to disease, due to lack of antibodies.

Fats : 

Fats Fat is a nutrient which gives lots of energy. The body stores energy as a layer of fat under the skin known as adipose tissue. They are classified into two groups: Saturated fats (come mainly from animal sources e.g. meat, eggs, milk and dairy produce like cream and butter). Unsaturated fats (come mainly from plant and fish sources such as peas, oily fish and cooking oil).

Functions of fats: 

Functions of fats Fat insulates the body in other words it helps to keep you warm. Fat protects the delicate organs such as the kidneys and nerves by a surrounding layer of fat. Fats provide the body with heat and energy. This helps to keep the body at the correct temperature (37o C). Fat is a source of the fat-soluble vitamins.

Deficiency of fats: 

Deficiency of fats Fat deficiency diseases rarely occur as fat is present in a wide variety of foods. However we should not eliminate fats completely from our diet because they are also a source of the fat - soluble vitamins.

Minerals : 

Minerals The human body requires about twenty mineral elements. Each has a specific function and is found in certain foods. A good varied diet should supply all essential minerals. Mineral elements are needed by all humans in small amounts.

Vitamins : 

Vitamins The word "vitamin" comes from vita, the Latin for "life". Everybody must eat a certain amount of vitamins to stay healthy. Vitamins are chemicals found in very small amounts in many different foods. If people live on a very limited range of foods they may not get their proper share of vitamins

Water : 

Water Water is absolutely essential to life. Over 70% of the human body is made up of water. The main sources of water are drinking water it is also found in other beverages and beverages. Fruits and green vegetables are also high in water. Almost all foods contain water, except those with a high fat content (butter), and dry foods (sugar and flour).

Functions of water : 

Functions of water It is the chief component of all body fluids. It helps dissolve foods and aids digestion. It helps remove waste material from the body. It regulates body temperature by perspiration. It is a source of dissolved minerals. It keeps the body fluids liquid so that they may flow easily.

Building a healthy diet: 

Building a healthy diet The food guide pyramid is an easy way to show the groups of foods that make up a healthy diet. It also tells us to eat a variety of foods from all five groups and how much of the foods from the different groups we should eat to stay healthy.

Building a healthy diet: 

Building a healthy diet Its pyramid shape helps explain which foods you should eat more or less of. The foods that make up the pyramid's base (the widest part) should provide the biggest part of your diet. As you go up the pyramid, the amounts of different foods you need get smaller. It also gives the number of servings you should eat from each part of the pyramid every day.

Food guide pyramid: 

Food guide pyramid

How you should eat: 

How you should eat Plenty of fruits, vegetables, bread and cereals. Moderate amounts of lean meat and fish, milk, cheese and yogurt, eggs and nuts. Only a little vegetable oils, butter, margarine, fried foods, pastries, biscuits, salty snack foods, potato chips, French fries, sweets, chocolates, ice-cream, cream, condensed milk, coconut milk, soft drinks and sweets.

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