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Related Information Practical Writing Check Yourself Fun Time


I. Related Information 1. What is Brain Drain? Brain Drain is defined by the encyclopaedia(百科全书) as the "departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another usually for better pay or living conditions". The British Royal Society(英国皇家学会) first coined the expression Brain Drain to describe the outflow of scientists and technologists to the United States and Canada in the1950s and early 1960s.


2. Brain Drain and IITians 1) IITians IIT, Indian Institute of Technology, was founded in the 1950s by prime minister Jawaharal Nehru to train the elite that could build and manage massive industrial development projects. As the institute’s reputation grew in the 1970s and 1980s, its seniors began gaining admission to top U.S. graduate schools and then leaping to research labs at IBM (美国国际商用机器 公司) or Hewlett-Packard. More recently, as U.S. software firms have mushroomed, they have turned to the well-established Indian pipeline to fill their needs.


Some 25,000 graduates of the seven Indian Institutes of Technology are working in the United States.The IITs are known for excellence; only 2% of the 178,000 applicants each year are accepted. Critics state that the Indian government has diverted resources to the IITs at the cost of primary education, but one advocate of India exporting high-tech workers counters that brain drain is better than brain in the drain. 2) Brain drain and IIT


Brain drain is good for India, many American scholars claim, since these IIT graduates learn new skills and will help India rebuild when they go back after a few years. Meanwhile billions of dollars sent as remittances (汇款) helps India. Moreover, many IIT-trained Indians in the U.S.A., who have achieved business success, are determined to help India open more technical and management schools so that more Indians can come to the U.S.A. and achieve success as they did.


Indian parliament cares about it since IITs are the pride of India.We are told that yes, some of the IITians are leaving India but still about two-third of them remain in India to serve India. The problem is that out of top quarter of IIT graduates, in fields like computer science and electrical engineering, most leave India. While IITians are of high quality, not all IITians are created equally and the impact of losing those IITians is perhaps more than one third. 3) How many IITians leave India?


A few good ones who don't go abroad, are selected by Multinationals (跨国公司) like Hindustan Lever to sell consumer products like soap. A few others go to management schools and work mostly for multinationals like banks. Of those who are of technical bent (not IIT technical), many are absorbed by the IT industry with companies like Infosys which basically supply cheap off-shore labor to foreign countries. Few are left to work for other industries in India. 4) IITians in India-Whom do they serve?


No. Most of them are not going to come back. They will talk about it but as they get married and have children and become settled in their careers, it becomes more and more unlikely. Some of the immigrants from countries like China and Singapore (新加坡) went once the income difference between the two countries narrowed. Not likely to happen soon in case of India. Politicians talk about making India developed by 2020, which is not realistic. IITians, in the rare cases where they go back to India, will most likely work for some non-Indian firms. 5) Aren't Indians abroad going to come back?


In nominal terms, yes. The supersmart students of IITs—the ones who leave for the U.S.A. are worth much more than that. A country disproportionately (不成比例地) depends on its “brains” and IITians are worth much more than the nominal cost of educating them. 6) It does not cost much—about $5,000 per IITian.


1) From US Bill On January 11, 2000, Sarita Sarvate wrote an article “India Fights the Brain Drain” (the text of section A). He pointed out that the bill that would give visas to high-tech foreign students will exploit the greatest minds of the third world for the sake of American industry. Under greater media coverage, the US Congress announced it was raising the annual cap on the number of temporary work visas granted to highly skilled professionals under its HIB visa program, from 115,000 to 195,000 per year until 2003. 3. Brain Drain and the U.S.


The United States is the main pole of attraction for foreign skilled workers; 40% of its foreign-born adult population have tertiary level education. Since the early 1990s, some 900,000 highly skilled professionals, mainly IT workers, from India, China, Russia and a few OECD (经济合作与发展组织) countries (including Canada, the UK and Germany) have migrated to the United States under the HIB temporary visa programme.


The United States also takes in 32% of all foreign students studying in the OECD countries. Indeed, higher education is an important channel for US firms recruiting highly skilled migrants; some 25% of HIB visa holders in1999 were previously students enrolled at US universities. In the United States, only half of the foreign students receiving a doctorate or a postdoctoral qualification return to their native country within two years.


2) Immigrants into the US The largest group of immigrants into the United States (about 3.7 million) consists of individuals with secondary education from other North American countries, primarily Mexico. The second largest group (almost 1.5 million individuals) consists of highly educated migrants from Asia and the Pacific.


Among the countries in Asia and the Pacific, the biggest source is the Philippines, with 730,000 migrants. Of these, the great majority have a tertiary education. The second largest stock of migrants is from China (400,000), which is split almost equally between the secondary and tertiary educational groups. Both India and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (朝鲜) have seen more than 300,000 people migrate to the United States. And more than 75 percent of Indian immigrants have a tertiary education, compared with only 53 percent of Korean immigrants.


The origins of the high-skilled immigrant presence in the U.S. date back to the mid-1960s. Prior to this, immigrants of all skill levels were limited to the U.S. by strict national quotas (配额). Although legislation before the 1960s had allowed for successive increases in quotas, an amendment to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) passed in 1965 finally repealed the national origins quota system and thus became the most far-reaching revision of immigration policy since the First Quota Act of 1921. The revision fostered a significant shift in immigration patterns. 3) Evidence of “Brain Drain” in the Silicon Valley


The number of skilled workers opting to extend their residency in the U.S. accelerated rapidly, for instance, throughout the 1970s, 80s and 90s. By 1990, one-third of the population of engineers in the Silicon Valley was foreign born, primarily from Asia. Among these Asian-born immigrants, roughly half are Chinese, twenty-three percent are Indians, and other smaller percentages include Filipinos, Japanese, and Koreans.


The 2000 U.S. census would reveal roughly the same percentages, although probably Chinese and Indian populations would be much larger. These immigrants in the Silicon Valley are more highly educated than their native-born counterparts and more highly represented in professional and technical occupations. Most people understand that the Silicon Valley is still the center of tech and the biggest market in the world.


4. About Gandhi


Gandhi’s Funeral


Resignation Letters 1. Key Points Make clear your reasons for resignation and the date of your resignation. e.g. Please accept my resignation, effective March 8, 2004. 2. Three Letters of Resignation II.Practical Writing


Sample I


Sample II My dear Mr. President: I have the honor to submit my resignation as Deputy Representative for the United States on the Security Council of the United States. I took the oath of office as the United States Ambassador to Brazil on May 3, 1948. Faithfully yours, Herschel V. Johnson


Sample III Dear Board of Directors: I have decided to resign my position as a member of the USAWKF Board of Directors effective today November 16, 1999. I would like to thank all of you for giving me a chance to serve as a member of the Board of Directors. Your support of me during the time I have participated is much appreciated. I will continue to support the USAWKF to the best of my abilities. Best wishes to all the board members and the USAWKF. Sincerely, Yu Liu


3. Practice Step 1 Write a resignation letter. The reasons , date , company and position is open. Step 2 Answer the resignation letter from another. Write it on the back of the original letter.


Ⅲ. Check Yourself 1. The embassy has _____ itself to send aid to the famine victim. A. drain B. shift C. integrated D. pledged 2. Cancellation of the flight ____ many passengers to spend the night at the airport. A. geared B. abandoned C. obliged D. tortured  


3. The prison guards were armed and ready to shoot if _____ in any way. A. allied B. provoked C. fussed D. inquired 4. In previous time, when fresh meat was in short ____, pigeons were kept by many households as a source of food. A. provision B. procedure C. assumption D. supply  


5. I’m afraid the problem is beyond the ____ of my lecture. A. parallel B. declaration C. scope D. substance 6. He usually ____ at my place on his way home. A. keeps out B. gets away with C. calls for D. drops in  


7. They put off their departure ____ the coming meeting. A. participate in B. engage in C. on account of D. instead of 8. It ____ that they sold to the home market but they didn’t export. A. broke out B. turned out C.worked out D. found out  


9. The firm installed ____ machines at enormous expense. A. prime B. indirect C. advanced D. skilled 10. The victims could only give a ____ description of the terrorist’s attack. A. illegal B. intermediate C. rhetorical D. vague  


Humors A Song—Sailing




Several friends were discussing the subject of fortune telling. One said that, when he was young, a fortune-teller predicted he would have more money than he could count, and another predicted he would open a bank. His mother was overjoyed to hear these prophecies. As it turned out, both fortune-tellers were correct. This man works in a bank. Every day he counts stacks and stacks of money—for the customers. And it is his duty to open the bank’s door every morning to start the day’s business. Humor1 Fortune Telling


Einstein was a great admirer of Charlie Chaplin’s films. Once, in a letter to Chaplin he said: “Your film, the ‘Modern Times’, everybody in the world can understand. You will certainly become a great man. Einstein.” In his answer to this letter Charlie Chaplin wrote: “I admire you even more. Your Theory of Relativity nobody in the world understands, but you have already become a great man. Chaplin.” Humor2 Einstein and Charlie Chaplin

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