INTEGRATED FISH CULTURE: INTEGRATED FISH CULTURE JOE SHALINI .S Integrated Fish Culture: Integrated Fish Culture Integrated fish farming systems refer to the production, integrated management and comprehensive use of aquaculture, agriculture and livestock India: about 1500 years ago Types : Types Aquaculture – Agriculture Integration Aquaculture – Livestock Integration Aquaculture – Agriculture Integration : Aquaculture – Agriculture Integration Fish - Rice integration Fish - Azolla integration Fish - Horticulture integration Fish - Seri integration Fish - Mushroom integration Aquaculture – Livestock Integration : Aquaculture – Livestock Integration Fish – Duck integration Fish – Cattle integration Fish – Poultry integration Fish – Pig integration Fish – Goat/Sheep integration Fish – Rabbit integration Fishes in IFF: Fishes in IFF Hypothalmichthys molitrix (silver carp) Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) Labeo rohita (rohu) Cirrihinus mrigala (mrigal) Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Catla catla (catla) Slide 7: Aquaculture – Agriculture Integration Fish – Rice culture: Fish – Rice culture 0.03% for rice – fish among 6 million hectare under rice cultivation Needs rice fields, digging peripheral trenches, dykes, pond refuge, sowing improved rice varities, fish, rice-bran and oil cake of 2-3% of body wt. Rice varities – panidhan, tusli, CR 26077,ADT 6, ADT 7, rajarajan, pattambi 15 and 16 Withstand flood Slide 9: Fish culture can be done simultaneous culture rotation culture Fish sps must be tolerate shallow water temp. Upto 35` C low dissoved O2 high turbidity Fish – Azolla : Fish – Azolla Azolla is a free floating fern Its thick mat eliminates mosquitoes Used as nitrogenous bio-fertilizer Only 20% should be cultured so that light penetraton is normal Food for grass carp Provide shade to fishes Decayed azolla – feed for common carp & mrigal Slide 13: Fish – Rice - Azolla Fish - Horticulture: Fish - Horticulture Top, inner and outer dykes of ponds is utilized for horticulture crops Pond water can be used for crops, vegetables and fruit bearing plants Plants should be dwarf, less shady, evergreen Dwarf fruit bearing plants – mango, banana, papaya, coconut, lime Pineapple, ginger, turmeric chilli are intercrops Rose, jasmine,marigold can also be grown Slide 15: Residues of vegetables could be recycled into fish ponds When banana or coconut cultivated in rows the ditches act as supply or drainage canal Grass carp, rohu, catla, mrigal – 50:15:20:15 Fish – Seri culture: Fish – Seri culture Mulberry is producer Silkworm is primary consumer Fish is secondary consumer (ingest silkworm faeces) Temp. 15-32`C Humidity 50-90% Slide 20: Fish - Mulberry Slide 21: Aquaculture – Livestock Integration Fish – Duck : Fish – Duck China, India, Hungary, Germany, Poland, Russia A fish pond being semi-closed biological system with aquatic animals and plants provide disease free environment for ducks Ducks consume juvenile frogs, tadpoles, dragon fly making safe environment to fish Advantage – no loss of energy & fertilization is homogenous Duck droppings – carbon, phosphorous, potassium, nitrogen, calcium Slide 23: Ducks move freely in screened places above water Floating pens or suspended bamboo slits in pond allow uniform manuring Stocking of fishes depend on size of pond and no. of ducks Stocking 20,000 /ha – production 3000 - 4000 kg/ha/yr and duck eggs and meat Slide 25: Fish – Duck - Vegetable Fish – Cattle : Fish – Cattle World wide Cattle urine, dung and washings are disposed direly into fish ponds which saves money and labour The cattle faeces and urine are beneficial to the filter-feeding and omnivorous fishes. On an average, 3-4 cows/buffaloes can provide sufficient manure to fertilize one hectare pond In addition 9000 l milk & 3000-4000kg of fish ha/yr Fish farmers not only earn money but also supply fish and milk to market Slide 27: Cow requires 7000-8000kg grass/yr Grass carp utilizes leftover grass Fish also utilizes fine feed wasted by cattle 20,000-30,000 kg of slurry is recycled in 1ha water area to get over 4000 kg fish without feed or any fertillizer application The system gives a net profit of Rs.1,14,000/- per year from 1ha land Slide 29: • Under this system of integration the poultry birds are raised in cages under a shed normally constructed over the pond embankments or in the vicinity of the pond • The space requirement in such a system of poultry raising is about 1 sq.ft. per bird. The droppings of the birds fall on the floor from where these are collected and applied to the pond • The chicken house can also be built directly over the pond water so that the excreta may fall in the pond water underneath Fish - Poultry Slide 30: • Usually, 400–600 chickens/ha of pond water surface are used. • No feed or fertilizer is applied in the pond, except aquatic vegetation for the grass carp. Fish production at the rate of 4–5 t/ha is possible using this system. • In India, this system of freshwater fish culture has assumed greater significance in view of its potential role in recycling of organic wastes and in integrated rural development Slide 32: • The pig dung as an organic manure for fish culture has certain advantages over cattle manure. The waste produced by 20-30 pigs is equivalent to one ton of Ammonium Sulphate applied to the soil • The pigs are fed largely on kitchen waste, aquatic plants and crop byproducts. At present, fish-pig integration is practiced in all the developing countries • Several exotic breeds of pigs have been introduced in the country to augment pork production. The popular races are the WhiteYorkshire,Berkshire and Landrace Fish - Pig Slide 33: • The pigsties should provide adequate protection from adverse weather conditions. A run or courtyard adjacent to the pig house is essential • The size of the pig house depends on the number of pigs to be reared. Floor space is provided @3-4 m2 for every pig weighing 70-90 kg The pigsties are built mostly at the pond sites and even over the ponds. The washings from the pigsties containing dung and urine are either channelised directly into the pond or composed before its application • The boars, sows and finishing stocks are housed separately. Maize, groundnut, wheatbran, fishmeal, mineral mixture provide base for concentrated feed mixture Slide 34: • In advanced countries,garbage is widely used to economize pork production and provided after pre-cooking when pig dung is applied to a pond • It enhances the biological productivity of the pond. A portion of dung is directly consumed by some fish also. The excreta voided by 35-40 pigs is found adequate to fertilize one hectare of water • Integrated fish-pig farming is a viable and feasible scientific approach to augment fish production at low cost. The net income in this integration from one hectare of pond is Rs.l,39,000/- Fish - Goat: Fish - Goat It is considered as poor man's cow and a goat's excreta is considered as a very good organic fertilizer The goat excreta contains organic carbon-60%, N-2.7%, P-1.78%, K-2.88% and its urine is also equally rich in both N & P 50-60 goats are essential to fertilize 1 ha pond The goats should be provided with dry, safe, comfortable house protected from excessive heat The goat breeds are Jamanapari, Beetal, Barbari for milk and Bengal, Sirihi, Deccani are used for meat purpose Goats are selective feeders and consume Berseem, Napier grass, Cowpea Soybean, Mulberry etc., This integration can provide 3500-4000 kg fish/ha/year without supplementary feeding and fertilizer Fish - Rabbit: Fish - Rabbit Rabbit meat is preferred by most of the health conscious consumers owing to its low fat in comparison to other meats The important meat breeds are Soviet Chinchilla, Grey Giant, and White Giant etc., Rabbits are reared in cage, hutch and floor system (floor should be cemented) Rabbit excreta contain organic carbon-50%, N-2%, P-1.33%, and K-1.2%. Its excreta is high in nitrogen content and low in moisture, thus quality manure for sustained plankton production It is estimated that excreta from 300 rabbits would be enough for 1 ha pond fertilization Advantages : Advantages As far as fish production is concerned, it serves the major purpose of providing cheap feedstuffs and organic manure for the fish ponds, thereby reducing the cost and need for providing compounded fish feeds and chemical fertilizers. By reducing the cost of fertilizers and feedstuffs the overall cost of fish production is reduced and profits increased. The study group was told that the profit from fish culture is often increased 30-40 percent as a result of integration. The overall income is increased by adding pig and/or poultry raising, grain and vegetable farming, etc., which supplement the income from fish farming. Slide 39: By producing grain, vegetables, fish and livestock products, the community becomes self-sufficient in regard to food and this contributes to a high degree of self-reliance. The silt from the ponds which is used to fertilize crops, increases the yield of crops at a lower cost and the need to buy chemical fertilizer is greatly reduced. It is estimated that about one third of all the fertilizer required for farming in the country comes from fish ponds.