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Composite Fish Culture:

Composite Fish Culture Stocking of cultivable fishes of different species which differ in feeding habits in same pond is called composite fish culture. Polyculture Mixed fish farming

Objectives :

Objectives All available niches utilized Composite fish sps do not harm eachother Production increases 5 – 8 times than monoculture Polyculture Fishes are mixture of plankton & macrophyte feeders

Indian system:

Indian system Catla catla Labeo rohita Cirrihinus mrigala Labeo calbasu Labeo fimfriatus Labeo konitus Cirrihinus cirrhosa

Slide 5:

100 – 1000 kg/ha/yr After Extensive experimentations 5200 kg/ha/12 ½ month Indian + Chinese in late 1950s

Indigenous :

Indigenous Catla catla (catla) Labeo rohita (rohu) Cirrihinus mrigala (mrigal) Surface feeder zooplankton Column feeder omnivore Bottom feeder detritivorous

Exotic :

Exotic Surface, column & marginal Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) Hypothalmichthys molitrix (silver carp) Bottom feeder Omnivore Herbivore Surface feeder Phytoplankton

Slide 8:

Natural Fish Food Organisms (Phytoplankton)

Slide 9:

Natural Fish Food Organisms (Zooplankton)

Slide 10:

Natural food preferences of the Asiatic carps at different stages of their life cycle Species Stages of life cycle Larvae Fry Fingerlings Adult Catla ( Catla catla ) Protozoans, rotifers unicellular algae, etc. Protozoans, rotifers and crustaceans. Crustaceans, algae, rotifers and some vegetable debris Crustaceans, algae, rotifers, plant matters, etc. Rohu ( Labeo rohita ) - do - Protozoans, rotifers, crustaceans, unicellular algae. Vegetable debris, phytoplankton crustaceans, detritus, etc. Vegetable debris, microscopic plants, detritus and mud. Mrigal ( Cirrhinus mrigal ) - do - Crustaceans, rotifers, planktonic algae. Vegetable debris, unicellular algae detritus and mud. Blue-green and filamentous algae, diatoms, pieces of macrophytes, decayed vegetable matters, mud & detritus. Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodonidella ) Protozoans, rotifers, copepod nauplii. Protozoans, rotifers, crustaceans, microzoobenthos, detritus, microalgae, plant fragments. Detritus and aquatic plants. Aquatic plants such as wolffia, lemna, spirodela, hydrilla, najas, ceratophyllum, chara, etc. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthysmolitrix) Unicellular planktonic organisms, nauplii and rotifers. Copepods, cladocerans and phytoplankton. Falagellata, dinoflagellata, myxophyceae, bacillariophycea, etc. Mainly phytoplankton. Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Var. Communis Protozoans, rotifers, cereodaphnia, moina, nauplii, etc. Rotifers, cyclops, cereodaphnia, moina, nauplii, euglena, oscillatoria, etc. Diaptomus, cyclops, moina, cereodaphnia, ostracods, insects including chironomid larvae. Decayed vegetable matter, worms, molluscs, chironomids, ephemerids and trichopterans.

Stocking density:

Stocking density Selection of sps for stocking depends on nature of soil water of ponds stocking material f ish food


INDIGENOUS EXOTIC CATLA : ROHU: MRIGAL : COMMON CARP : GRASS CARP : SILVER CARP 1 1 1 2.5 2.5 2 1 1 1 2.5 1.5 3 1.5 3 1 2.5 1.5 3.5


SPECIES INTER-RELATIONSHIP Catla and silver carp surface fedeers Combination can be 1:1, 1.5:2, 1:3 Silver carp show better growth

Slide 14:

Mrigal and common carp 1:1 Common carp show better growth Monthly growth – 147g (commom carp) 76 – 107g (mrigal)

Slide 15:

Grass carp and rohu Their excreta is feed for bottom feeders Grass carp show better growth of 5.05kg/yr Frame filled with aquatic weeds to feed grass carp and rice bran

Water management:

Water management Small, shallow and seasonal ponds get filled or dried whereas deeper and perennial ponds exhibit considerable fluctuation of water level. Irigation canal Tube well (electricity) Tube well (diesel) Dug well

Slide 17:

Except common carp, all the other five Indian and Chinese major carps,cultivated under composite fish culture do not breed in pond conditions although they attain full gonadal maturity. However, they breed in bundh type tanks. The successful development of the technique of induced breeding through hypophysation ensures breeding of both Indian and Chinese major carps in captivity.

Fish toxicant:

Fish toxicant Bassia latifolia used as fish toxicant and also as organic manure instead of calcium hypochlorite. Bleaching powder in 25-30ppm kills unwanted fish sps such as Channa striatus, C. g achua, Glassobius giuris, etc., Plankton and benthoic fauna develop from 8 th day of treatment.

Soil management and fertilization:

Soil management and fertilization Old ponds- high organic content New ponds- low organic content Nutient store is locked in sediment Microcystis (algae) - utilize sediment nutrient during early development

Fish health & hygiene:

Fish health & hygiene Major Factors for diseases Pathogen Susceptible fish Environmental conditions 3 steps for health management Prophylactic measures Fish health monitoring Treatment

Slide 21:

Diseased fish exhibit physical & behavioural signs Slowing or complete stopage of food Abnomal swimming Surfacing & scrapping against bottom or sides

Clinical symptoms:

Clinical symptoms Excess mucous secretion Change in colouration Erosion of scales, fins, etc., Formation of cysts Abdominal swelling Bulging eyes Treatment Immersion in chemical solution Treatment via diet

Harvesting and common hazards:

Harvesting and common hazards Harvested using seine net (surface feeders caught easily) Pocket net catch bottom dwellers

Production :

Production Indigenous – 4000 kg/ha/yr Exotic – 3000 kg/ha/yr Recent production (both) – 11,000 kg/ha/yr

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